Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Content, Antioxidant, and Toxicity Test with BSLT of Meistera chinensis Fruit Fraction from Southeast Sulawesi

Keywords: Phytochemical screening, Radical scavenging, Total flavonoid, Total phenolic, Meistera chinensis

Abstract

Zingiberaceae have a large number of species and still need research to reveal their chemical content. Meistera chinensis is one of the new generations of the Zingiberaceae family, a local and widespread plant in Konawe Regency, Southeast Sulawesi. Empirically, M. chinensis is used as a flavor enhancer in food, aches, and increases body immunity. There are no reports of chemical content or its biological activity. In this study, the fruit of M. chinensis was tested for phytochemicals, antioxidants using the ABTS test, total phenolic, total flavonoid content, and toxicity test with a lethal test for brine shrimp (BSLT). Meistera chinensis was extracted with ethanol and fractionated by ethyl acetate solvent using vacuum liquid chromatography. Phytochemical screening was carried out qualitatively by using the calorimetric method. The fraction toxicity was monitored by BSLT. These fractions for the ABTS method obtained fractions 1-8 (F1-F8) and ascorbic acid were used as controls. The results showed radical scavenging activities fraction of M. chinensis fruit was a very strong activity with IC50 of 42.7±3.53 mg/L (F8). The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were 30.72±1.07 mgGAE/g and 8.02±0.48 mgQE/g, respectively. The phytochemical evaluation contains terpenoids, saponins, phenolics, steroids, alkaloids, and flavonoids. The BSLT toxicity test was found to be very toxic, with an IC50 of 5.2±0.72 mg/L. These findings indicate that the fruit of M. chinensis acts as an antioxidant and toxicity agent.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

1. Ekor M. The growing use of herbal medicines: issues relating to adverse reactions and challenges in monitoring safety. Front Pharmacol. 2013;4:177. doi:10.3389/fphar.2013.00177
2. Musdalipah, Karmilah. Efektivitas ekstrak daun cabai rawit (Capsicum frutescents L.) sebagai penumbuh rambut terhadap hewan uji kelinci (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Riset Informasi Kesehatan. 2018;7(1):83-8. doi:10.30644/rik.v7i1.137\
3. Atanasov AG, Waltenberger B, Pferschy-Wenzig EM, Linder T, Wawrosch C, Uhrin P, et al. Discovery and resupply of pharmacologically active plant-derived natural products: A review. Biotechnol Adv. 2015;33(8):1582-614. doi:10.1016/j.biotechadv.2015.08.001
4. Cory H, Passarelli S, Szeto J, Tamez M, Mattei J. The Role of Polyphenols in Human Health and Food Systems: A Mini-Review. Front Nutr. 2018;5:87. doi:10.3389/fnut.2018.00087
5. Panche AN, Diwan AD, Chandra SR. Flavonoids: an overview. J Nutr Sci. 2016;5:e47. doi:10.1017/jns.2016.41
6. Sharifi-Rad M, Varoni EM, Salehi B, Sharifi-Rad J, Matthews KR, Ayatollahi SA, et al. Plants of the Genus Zingiber as a Source of Bioactive Phytochemicals: From Tradition to Pharmacy. Molecules. 2017;22(12):2145. doi:10.3390/molecules22122145
7. de Boer H, Newman M, Poulsen AD, Droop AJ, Fér T, Hiền LTT, et al. Convergent morphology in Alpinieae (Zingiberaceae): Recircumscribing Amomum as a monophyletic genus. Taxon. 2018;67(1):6-36. doi:10.12705/671.2
8. Jackie T, Haleagrahara N, Chakravarthi S. Antioxidant effects of Etlingera elatior flower extract against lead acetate - induced perturbations in free radical scavenging enzymes and lipid peroxidation in rats. BMC Res Notes. 2011;4:67. doi:10.1186/1756-0500-4-67
9. Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar HZE, Rahmat A, Ashkani S. Secondary metabolites constituents and antioxidant, anticancer and antibacterial activities of Etlingera elatior (Jack) R.M.Sm grown in different locations of Malaysia. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2015;15:335. doi:10.1186/s12906-015-0838-6
10. Chan EWC, Lim YY, Wong SK. Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Properties of Etlingera elatior: A Review. Pharmacogn J. 2011;3(22):6-10. doi:10.5530/pj.2011.22.2
11. Fristiohady A, Zubaydah WOS, Wahyuni W, Mirda M, Saripuddin S, Andriani R, et al. Immunomodulator Activity of Effervescent Granule of Wualae Fruit (Etlingera elatior (Jack) R.M. Smith) Based on Specific Phagocytic Activity. Borneo J Pharm. 2019;2(2):35-40. doi:10.33084/bjop.v2i2.868
12. Juwita T, Puspitasari IM, Levita J. Torch Ginger (Etlingera elatior): A Review on its Botanical Aspects, Phytoconstituents and Pharmacological Activities. Pak J Biol Sci. 2018;21(4):151-65. doi:10.3923/pjbs.2018.151.165
13. Al-Enazi NM. Phytochemical Screening and Biological Activities of Some Species of Alpinia and Convolvulus Plants. Int J Pharmacol. 2018;14(3):301-9. doi:10.3923/ijp.2018.301.309
14. Saragih G, Tamrin, Marpongahtun, Nasution DY, Abdillah. Phytochemical screening and toxicity of ethanolic extract of mangrove (Rhizophora mucronata) leaves from Langsa, Aceh Timur. Rasayan J Chem. 2020;13(1):476-80. doi:10.31788/RJC.2020.1315524
15. Kurutas EB. The importance of antioxidants which play the role in cellular response against oxidative/nitrosative stress: current state. Nutr J. 2016;15:71. doi:10.1186/s12937-016-0186-5
16. Anwuchaepe AU, Onyegbule FA, Ajaghaku DL, Nwafor FI, Okoye FBC. Evaluation of the in vivo antioxidant, toxicological and chromatographical profiling of leaf extract and fractions of Crescentia cujete Linn. (Bignoniaceae). Asian Pac J Health Sci. 2017;4(3):43-54. doi:10.21276/apjhs.2017.4.3.8.
17. Patricia VM, Syaputri FN, Tugon TDA, Mardhatillah A. Antioxidant Properties of Pyrus communis and Pyrus pyrifolia Peel Extracts. Borneo J Pharm. 2020;3(2):64-70. doi:10.33084/bjop.v3i2.1337
18. Tungmunnithum D, Thongboonyou A, Pholboon A, Yangsabai A. Flavonoids and Other Phenolic Compounds from Medicinal Plants for Pharmaceutical and Medical Aspects: An Overview. Medicines. 2018;5(3):93. doi:10.3390/medicines5030093
19. Nurhikma E, Wulaisfan R, Musdalipah M. Cost Effectiveness Kombinasi Antihipertensi Candesartan-Bisoprolol dan Candesartan-Amlodipin Pada Pasien Rawat Jalan Penderita Hipertensi. Jurnal Profesi Medika : Jurnal Kedokteran dan Kesehatan. 2019;13(2):54-61. doi:10.33533/jpm.v13i2.1284
20. Angone SA, Mewono L, Mounanga MB, Medzegue S, Mendene HFE, Ndong JGM, et al. Phytochemical screening and cytotoxicity studies of Chrysophyllum pruniforme Pierre ex Engl. Barks. Pharmacognosy Res. 2013;5(3):195-9. doi:10.4103/0974-8490.112427
21. Indra I, Nurmalasari N, Kusmiati M. Fenolik Total, Kandungan Flavonoid, dan Aktivitas Antioksidan Ekstrak Etanol Daun Mareme (Glochidion arborescense Blume.). Jurnal Sains Farmasi dan Klinis. 2019;6(3):206-12. doi:10.25077/jsfk.6.3.206-212.2019
22. Altemimi A, Lakhssassi N, Baharlouei A, Watson DG, Lightfoot DA. Phytochemicals: Extraction, Isolation, and Identification of Bioactive Compounds from Plant Extracts. Plants. 2017;6(4):42. doi:10.3390/plants6040042
23. Chandra S, Khan S, Avula B, Lata H, Yang MH, Elsohly MA, et al. Assessment of total phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant properties, and yield of aeroponically and conventionally grown leafy vegetables and fruit crops: a comparative study. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2014;2014:253875. doi:10.1155/2014/253875
24. Saeed N, Khan MR, Shabbir M. Antioxidant activity, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of whole plant extracts Torilis leptophylla L. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2012;12:221. doi:10.1186/1472-6882-12-221
25. Meyer BN, Ferrigni NR, Putnam JE, Jacobsen LB, Nichols DE, McLaughin JL. Brine shrimp: a convenient general bioassay for active plant constituents. Planta Med. 1982;45(5):31-4. doi:10.1055/s-2007-971236
26. Karchesy YM, Kelsey RG, Constantine G, Karchesy JJ. Biological screening of selected Pacific Northwest forest plants using the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) toxicity bioassay. Springerplus. 2016;5:510. doi:10.1186/s40064-016-2145-1
27. Fristiohady A, Sadarun B, Wahyuni W, Malaka MH, Ahmad F, Malik F, et al. Isolation and identification of secondary metabolite acetone extract Aaptos sp. and its antioxidant properties and acute toxicity. J Appl Pharm Sci. 2020;10(6):81-9. doi:10.7324/JAPS.2020.10611
28. Sarker DS, Latif Z, Gray AI, editors. Natural Products Isolation. 2nd Edition (Methods in Biotechnology, Vol. 20). Totowa, NJ.: Humana Press Inc.; 2005. doi:10.1385/1592599559
29. Erwin E, Pusparohmana WR, Sari IP, Hairani R, Usman U. Phytochemical and antioxidant activity evaluation of the bark of Tampoi (Baccaurea macrocarpa). F1000Res. 2020;7:1977. doi:10.12688/f1000research.16643.2
30. Kumar V, Sharma A, Kaur H, Thukral AK, Bhardwaj R. Phytochemical profiling of the leaves of Chenopodium and Polygonum using GC-MS. Res J Pharm Technol. 2015;8(12):1629. doi:10.5958/0974-360X.2015.00292.9
31. Esmaeili AK, Taha RM, Mohajer S, Banisalam B. Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Content of Various Solvent Extracts from In Vivo and In Vitro Grown Trifolium pratense L. (Red Clover). Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:643285. doi:10.1155/2015/643285
32. Fidrianny I, Sahar NA, Ruslan KW. Evaluation of antioxidant activities from various extracts of Dragon fruit peels using DPPH, ABTS assays, and correlation with phenolic, flavonoid, carotenoid content. Int J Res Pharm Sci. 2014;5(2):104-11.
33. Mohsen SM, Ammar ASM. Total phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of corn tassel extracts. Food Chem. 2009;112(3):595-8. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.06.014
34. Kamtekar S, Keer V, Patil V. Estimation of Phenolic content, Flavonoid content, Antioxidant and Alpha amylase Inhibitory Activity of Marketed Polyherbal Formulation. J Appl Pharm Sci. 2014;4(9):61-5. doi:10.7324/JAPS.2014.40911
35. Chaiyasut C, Kesika P, Chaiyasut K, Sittiyuno P, Peerajan S, Sivamaruthi BS. Total Phenolic Content and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Representative Medicinal Plants of Thailand. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2017;10(11):137-41. doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i11.20741
36. Molyneux P. The use of the stable free radical diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) for estimating antioxidant activity. Songklanarin J Sci Technol. 2004;26(2):211-9.
37. Parasuraman S. Toxicological screening. J Pharmacol Pharmacother. 2011;2(2):74-9. doi:10.4103/0976-500X.81895
38. Rasyid MI, Yuliani H, Angraeni L. Toxicity Test LC50 of Pineung Nyen Teusalee Seeds (Areca catechu) Extract by Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT) Methode. IOP Conf Ser Earth Environ Sci. 2020;515:012052. doi:10.1088/1755-1315/515/1/012052
39. Sahidin S, Wahyuni W, Malaka MH, Jabbar A, Imran I, Manggau MA. Evaluation of Antiradical Scavenger Activity of Extract and Compounds from Etlingera Calophrys Stems. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2018;11(2):238-41. doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2018.v11i2.22535
Published
2021-02-28
How to Cite
Musdalipah, M., Tee, S. A., Karmilah, K., Sahidin, S., Fristiohady, A., & Yodha, A. W. M. (2021). Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Content, Antioxidant, and Toxicity Test with BSLT of Meistera chinensis Fruit Fraction from Southeast Sulawesi. Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, 4(1), 6-15. https://doi.org/10.33084/bjop.v4i1.1686
Section
Pharmacognosy-Phytochemistry