Borneo Journal of Pharmacy http://journal.umpr.ac.id/index.php/bjop <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Title:&nbsp;</strong>Borneo Journal of Pharmacy<br><strong>ISSN: </strong><a href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/2621-4814">2621-4814</a> (Online)<br><strong>Subject: </strong>Pharmacy<br> <strong>Frequency: </strong>Quarterly (4 issues per year in February, May, August, and November) onward <strong>February 2020</strong><br><strong>Indexed at: </strong><a href="https://www.elsevier.com/__data/assets/excel_doc/0008/1048328/ELS-EM-Embase-content-coverage-overview-2021.xlsx">EMBASE</a>,&nbsp;<a href="https://sinta.kemdikbud.go.id/journals/detail/?id=5983">SINTA 2</a>,<strong>&nbsp;</strong><a href="https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?search_mode=content&amp;and_facet_source_title=jour.1365735">Dimensions</a>, <a href="https://doaj.org/toc/2621-4814">DOAJ</a>, <a href="https://v2.sherpa.ac.uk/id/publication/37313">SHERPA RoMEO</a>, <a href="https://search.crossref.org/?q=2621-4814">Crossref,</a>&nbsp;<a href="https://journals.indexcopernicus.com/search/details?id=50019">ICI</a>,&nbsp;<a href="http://journalseeker.researchbib.com/view/issn/2621-4814">ResearchBib</a>, <a href="https://scholar.google.com/citations?hl=en&amp;user=R7G787AAAAAJ">Google Scholar,</a> <a href="https://garuda.kemdikbud.go.id/journal/view/12940">GARUDA</a>, and more<br> <strong>DOI: </strong><a href="https://doi.org/10.33084/bjop">10.33084/bjop</a><br><strong>Archive preservation: </strong><a href="http://onesearch.id/Search/Results?filter[]=repoId:IOS6026">Indonesia OneSearch,</a><strong>&nbsp;</strong><a href="https://garuda.kemdikbud.go.id/journal/view/12940">GARUDA</a><br> <strong>Publisher: </strong><a href="https://lp2m.umpr.ac.id/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Institute For Research and Community Services</a> <a href="http://umpr.ac.id" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Universitas Muhammadiyah Palangkaraya</a><br> <strong>Editor in Chief: </strong><a href="https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0727-4392">Mohammad Rizki Fadhil Pratama</a></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Borneo Journal of Pharmacy</strong> (<em>Borneo J Pharm</em>, ISSN: <em><a href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/2621-4814">2621-4814</a></em> (online)) is an international scientific platinum open-access journal managed by the&nbsp;<strong><a title="Department of Pharmacy Faculty of Health Science" href="https://fik.umpr.ac.id/program-studi/d3-farmasi/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Department of Pharmacy Faculty of Health Science</a> <a href="http://umpr.ac.id" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Universitas Muhammadiyah Palangkaraya</a></strong>&nbsp;and published four times a year (in February, May, August, and November) onward February 2020 by <strong><a href="https://lp2m.umpr.ac.id/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Institute for Research and Community Services</a> <a href="http://umpr.ac.id" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Universitas Muhammadiyah Palangkaraya</a></strong>. <strong>Borneo Journal of Pharmacy</strong> accepts scientific articles in the form of <strong>original research articles</strong>, <strong>short communication</strong>, <strong>reviews,</strong> and <strong>mini-reviews</strong> from anyone without any discrimination, as long as they submit articles that meet scientific principles.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">As a distinctive feature, the <strong>Borneo Journal of Pharmacy</strong> prioritizes research articles conducted on the <strong>island of Borneo</strong> (consisting of Indonesia, Malaysia, and Brunei Darussalam), as well as those conducted by researchers from institutions on the island of Borneo. In every volume, there are always articles written by authors from the island of Borneo. However, articles from researchers outside the island of Borneo are also welcome.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Borneo Journal of Pharmacy</strong> publishes various scientific articles covering <strong>Pharmaceutical Sciences</strong>, in the field but not limited to <strong>Pharmacology-Toxicology</strong>;&nbsp;<strong>Pharmacognosy-Phytochemistry</strong>;&nbsp;<strong>Pharmaceutical</strong>;&nbsp;<strong>Analytical Pharmacy-Medicinal Chemistry</strong>;&nbsp;<strong>Microbiology Pharmacy</strong>;&nbsp;<strong>Natural Product Development</strong>;&nbsp;<strong>Clinical-Community Pharmacy</strong>; and&nbsp;<strong>Management Pharmacy</strong>.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><a href="https://sinta.kemdikbud.go.id/journals/detail/?id=5983"><img src="/public/site/images/adminjournal/SINTA3.png" width="84" height="30"></a></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Borneo Journal of Pharmacy</strong> is accredited at&nbsp;<strong>"<a href="https://sinta.kemdikbud.go.id/journals/detail/?id=5983">SINTA 2</a>"</strong>&nbsp;until February 2025 by the Minister of Research and Technology/National Research and Innovation Agency, Indonesia No: <strong><a href="http://arjuna.ristekbrin.go.id/files/info/Hasil_Penetapan_Akreditasi_Jurnal_Periode_2_Tahun_2020.pdf">148/M/KPT/2020</a></strong>.</p> Institute for Research and Community Services Universitas Muhammadiyah Palangkaraya en-US Borneo Journal of Pharmacy 2621-4814 <p style="text-align: justify;">Authors continue to retain the copyright to the article if the article is published in the <strong>Borneo Journal of Pharmacy</strong>. They will also retain the publishing rights to the article without any restrictions.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">Any article on the copyright is retained by the author(s).</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">The author grants the journal, right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share work with an acknowledgment of the work authors and initial publications in this journal.</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of published articles of work (eg, post-institutional repository) or publish it in a book, with acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their websites) prior to and during the submission process, as can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">The article and any associated published material are distributed under the <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/">Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License</a>.</li> </ol> Cover, Content, and Editorial Note from Borneo J Pharm Vol. 5 No. 2 May 2022 http://journal.umpr.ac.id/index.php/bjop/article/view/3762 <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>Assalamu’alaikum Wr. Wb.</em></p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Alhamdulillahirabbil ‘alamin. The next edition of the&nbsp;<strong>Borneo Journal of Pharmacy</strong> (<em>Borneo J Pharm</em>) has been published in May 2022. This edition contains ten articles consisting of Pharmacology-Toxicology, Pharmacognosy-Phytochemistry, Pharmaceutical, Microbiology Pharmacy, Natural Product Development, and Clinical-Community Pharmacy. This edition includes writings from four countries, including India, Indonesia, Nigeria, and Sri Lanka. The authors come from several institutions, including Universitas Pancasila, University of Jaffna, Universitas Muhammadiyah Prof. Dr. HAMKA, Universitas Setia Budi, Federal University Birnin Kebbi, Kano State Polytechnic, Universitas Muhammadiyah Palangkaraya, Prathima Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhaskar Pharmacy College, Ganapathy Degree College, Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang, Universitas Muhammadiyah Magelang, and Universitas Andalas.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Editorial boards are fully aware that there is still room for improvement in this edition, hence with all humility, willing to accept constructive suggestions and feedback for improvements to the publication for the next editions. The editorial board would like to thank all editors and reviewers, and contributors of the scientific articles who have provided the repertoire in this issue. We hope that all parties, especially the contributors, could re-participate for publication in the next edition in August 2022.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>Wassalamu’alaikum Wr. Wb.</em></p> Chief Editor of Borneo J Pharm ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-05-31 2022-05-31 5 2 10.33084/bjop.v5i2.3762 Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Activity of Musa balbisiana Peels In Vivo http://journal.umpr.ac.id/index.php/bjop/article/view/3169 <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>Musa balbisiana</em>&nbsp;Peels (MBP) contains high levels of flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, saponins, and triterpenoids. Flavonoids function to slow down the inflammatory process by inhibiting the arachidonic acid, forming prostaglandins, and releasing histamine. This study aimed to examine the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of MBP decoction. This study used the Winter method for anti-inflammatory assay by induction of carrageenan on the soles of rat's feet and Sigmund's method for analgesic assay with intraperitoneal induction of acetic acid in mice. Group I as a negative control, group II as a positive control with diclofenac sodium, group III as a low dose (200 mg/kg BW of MBP), group IV as a medium dose (400 mg/kg BW of MBP), and group V as a high dose (800 mg/kg BW of MBP decoction). The percentage of inhibition in the anti-inflammatory test in rats for groups II, III, IV, and V was 34.43%, 17.68%, 25.53%, and 25.4%, and the percentage of effectiveness for the anti-inflammatory test, respectively, was 51.35%, 74.15%, and 74.01%. The results of the percentage inhibition of the analgesic test in mice for groups II, III, IV, and V were 55.25%, 38.52%, 44.53%, and 49.31%, and the percentage of effectiveness for the analgesic test, respectively, followed by 69.71%, 80.59%, and 89.24%. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the decoction of the MBP has an anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect.</p> Ni Made Dwi Sandhiutami Sondang Khairani Rika Sari Dewi Zainur Rahman Hakim Anita Rahmi Pradani ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-05-31 2022-05-31 5 2 81 92 10.33084/bjop.v5i2.3169 Comparative Analysis of Qualitative and Quantitative Phytochemical Evaluation of Selected Leaves of Medicinal Plants in Jaffna, Sri Lanka http://journal.umpr.ac.id/index.php/bjop/article/view/3091 <p style="text-align: justify;">The traditional system of medicine in Sri Lanka has shown much better improvement, has fewer side effects, and is less expensive than modern synthetic drugs in the treatment of many diseases. The objective of the present study was to comparatively evaluate the qualitative and quantitative analysis of phytochemical constituents of leaves of <em>Murraya koenigii</em> (L.) Spreng., <em>Tinospora cordifolia</em> (Wild) Hook.f., <em>Enicostemma axillare</em> (Lam) A. Raynal, and <em>Gymnema sylvestre</em> R. Br. were collected from Jaffna District. The shade-dried leaves were powdered and extracted with ethanol using the cold extraction technique. These ethanolic extracts were subjected to phytochemical analysis using recommended laboratory techniques. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's multiple comparisons at probability value (p &lt;0.05) were used in the statistical analysis of the data. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, steroids, saponins, phenols, and glycosides. <em>Murraya koenigii</em> shows the highest phenol and alkaloid contents (1960.71±66.88 and 19.42±0.26). <em>Enicostemma axillare</em> shows the highest flavonoid and tannin contents (22.27±0.86 and 1.26±0.017). Therefore, <em>E. axillare</em> and <em>M. koenigii</em> can be used as nutraceuticals in traditional medicine.</p> Gowri Rajkumar Panambara Arachchilage Harini Rangana Panambara Vinotha Sanmugarajah ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-05-31 2022-05-31 5 2 93 103 10.33084/bjop.v5i2.3091 A Review of Anti-hyperglycemic Effects of Curry Leaf Tree (Murraya koenigii) http://journal.umpr.ac.id/index.php/bjop/article/view/3300 <p style="text-align: justify;">Diabetes mellitus is becoming a metabolic disease that is defined by the level of hyperglycemia. Nowadays, it has a serious threat to public healthiness in throughout the world. Constituents and extracts isolated from diverse natural resources, mainly plants, have constantly been a rich store for controlling and treating diabetes problems. Numerous researches are ongoing to identify the suitable traditional medical drugs, medicinal herbs, and resources for managing this condition. <em>Murraya koenigii</em> Spreng (family Rutaceae) is commonly known as a ‘curry leaf tree’ locally. It is widely scattered in India and Sri Lanka, and leaves are commonly used for cooking. And also mainly used for various health conditions such as diabetes, anemia, diarrhea, and others. The present review aimed to critically review the anti-hyperglycemic effect of the <em>M. koenigii</em> based on the review, <em>in vitro</em>, <em>in vivo</em>, and clinical studies. Based on this review, the <em>M. koenigii</em> possess flavonoids, phenols, saponins, alkaloids, tannins, and cardiac glycosides. It has shown a potential anti-hyperglycemic effect on induced diabetic rats. This review reported the potential of <em>M. koenigii</em> and its extract to be a high-value dietary product in terms of its anti-hyperglycemic effects and industrial profits. Therefore, the present review supports the researchers and readers/users to realize the importance of using <em>M. koenigii</em> in managing diabetes mellitus. Further, this review provides a valuable document for future scientific-related clinical trials in diabetic patients.</p> Vinotha Sanmugarajah Gowri Rajkumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-05-31 2022-05-31 5 2 104 114 10.33084/bjop.v5i2.3300 Pharmacognosy, Phytochemical, and Pharmacology of Wijaya Kusuma (Epiphyllum oxypetalum (DC.) Haw.) – An Update Review http://journal.umpr.ac.id/index.php/bjop/article/view/3342 <p style="text-align: justify;">In Indonesia, <em>Epiphyllum oxypetalum</em> (DC.) Haw. is known as Wijaya Kusuma. The plant is grown for home decorating and used widely as medicine in some areas. This narrative review discusses the pharmacognosy, phytochemical, and pharmacology aspects of <em>E. oxypetalum</em>. The review is limited to original articles and abstracts available in Science Direct, PubMed, and Google Scholar. The keyword used to search the articles was “<em>Epiphyllum oxypetalum</em>”. The plant contains proteins, amino acids, alkaloids, saponins, terpenoids, steroids, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides, and resins. The plant has pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobials, antidiabetic, and antioxidant properties. Researchers interested in developing <em>E. oxypetalum</em> as a medicinal plant might use this review as a reference.</p> Chandra Adam Lesmana Ni Putu Ermi Hikmawanti Agustin Yumita ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-05-31 2022-05-31 5 2 115 125 10.33084/bjop.v5i2.3342 Optimization of Quercetin Gel Formulation using Factorial Design Method and Antibacterial Test against Propionibacterium acnes http://journal.umpr.ac.id/index.php/bjop/article/view/3321 <p style="text-align: justify;">Quercetin is a flavonoid from a group of polyphenolic flavonoid compounds. Quercetin can be used as an alternative to acne treatment, predominantly triggered by <em>Propionibacterium acnes</em>. This study aimed to determine the effect and proportion of carbopol 940, propylene glycol, and glycerin on the physical quality of quercetin gel, the ability of the optimum formula in an antibacterial test, and its diffusion using Franz diffusion. This study uses the factorial design method for formula optimization. Optimization was carried out with the parameters of the physical quality of the gel tested, including viscosity, dispersibility, antibacterial, and Franz diffusion. The combination of carbopol 940, glycerin, and propylene glycol affected the physical quality test of quercetin gel, carbopol and glycerin significantly affected viscosity. In contrast, glycerin and propylene glycol significantly affected Franz's dispersion, antibacterial, and diffusion properties. The optimum proportion of the combination of carbopol 940, glycerin, and propylene glycol in the manufacture of quercetin gel using the factorial design method obtained a concentration of carbopol 940 of 0.5%, glycerin of 15%, and propylene glycol of 10%. The optimum formula ability in the antibacterial test was 22.20 mm, and the cumulative percent of quercetin penetrated was 97.91%.</p> M. Andi Chandra Ilham Kuncahyo Ana Indrayati ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-05-31 2022-05-31 5 2 126 135 10.33084/bjop.v5i2.3321 Campylobacter Species, Microbiological Source Tracking and Risk Assessment of Bacterial pathogens http://journal.umpr.ac.id/index.php/bjop/article/view/3363 <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>Campylobacter</em> species continue to remain critical pathogens of public health interest. They are responsible for approximately 500 million cases of gastroenteritis per year worldwide. Infection occurs through the consumption of contaminated food and water. Microbial risk assessment and source tracking are crucial epidemiological strategies to monitor the outbreak of campylobacteriosis effectively. Various methods have been proposed for microbial source tracking and risk assessment, most of which rely on conventional microbiological techniques such as detecting fecal indicator organisms and other novel microbial source tracking methods, including library-dependent microbial source tracking and library-independent source tracking approaches. However, both the traditional and novel methods have their setbacks. For example, while the conventional techniques are associated with a poor correlation between indicator organism and pathogen presence, on the other hand, it is impractical to interpret qPCR-generated markers to establish the exact human health risks even though it can give information regarding the potential source and relative human risk. Therefore, this article provides up-to-date information on campylobacteriosis, various approaches for source attribution, and risk assessment of bacterial pathogens, including next-generation sequencing approaches such as shotgun metagenomics, which effectively answer the questions of potential pathogens are there and in what quantities.</p> Bashar Haruna Gulumbe Abbas Yusuf Bazata Musbahu Abdullahi Bagwai ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-05-31 2022-05-31 5 2 136 152 10.33084/bjop.v5i2.3363 Formulation of Anti Acne Loose Powder of Bawang Dayak (Eleutherine bulbosa (Mill.) Urb.) Ethanol Extract http://journal.umpr.ac.id/index.php/bjop/article/view/3153 <p style="text-align: justify;">Bawang dayak (<em>Eleutherine bulbosa</em> (Mill.) Urb is one of the notable Iridaceae family, originating from Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Previous studies have reported that&nbsp;<em>E.&nbsp;bulbosa</em> ethanol extract and its cream preparation have antibacterial properties that can inhibit the growth of acne-causing bacteria and cause no significant skin adverse reaction. This study aimed to make a loose powder preparation from <em>E.&nbsp;bulbosa</em> ethanol extract and determine its physical evaluation and antibacterial activity. Loose powder formulation was made with various concentrations of <em>E.&nbsp;bulbosa</em> ethanol extract, F0 (0%), F1 (5%), F2 (10%), and F3 (15%). Loose powder evaluates for organoleptic, homogeneity, and antibacterial activity by the disc diffusion method. The results show that <em>E.&nbsp;bulbosa</em> ethanol extract can produce a loose powder formulation. The color of the formula is rather yellow (F0), brown-ash (F1), and light brown (F2 and F3), which has a typical mint odor, smooth texture, and homogeneous. All formulations inhibited the growth of <em>Propionibacterium acnes</em>,&nbsp;<em>Staphylococcus epidermidis</em>, and <em>Staphylococcus&nbsp;aureus</em>. This present study showed the potential of Formula 3 (F3) as an anti-acne loose powder due to its organoleptic properties, homogeneity, and antibacterial activity, which has the largest inhibition zone diameter of 17.6 ± 3.1 mm.</p> Susi Novaryatiin Nursheilla Rizky Amalia Syahrida Dian Ardhany ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-05-31 2022-05-31 5 2 153 160 10.33084/bjop.v5i2.3153 The Current Perspectives in Clinical Research: Computer-Assisted Drug Designing, Ethics, and Good Clinical Practice http://journal.umpr.ac.id/index.php/bjop/article/view/3013 <p style="text-align: justify;">In the era of emerging microbial and non-communicable diseases and re-emerging microbial infections, the medical fraternity and the public are plagued by under-preparedness. It is evident by the severity of the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic that novel microbial diseases are a challenge and are challenging to control. This is mainly attributed to the lack of complete knowledge of the novel microbe’s biology and pathogenesis and the unavailability of therapeutic drugs and vaccines to treat and control the disease. Clinical research is the only answer utilizing which can handle most of these circumstances. In this review, we highlight the importance of computer-assisted drug designing (CADD) and the aspects of molecular docking, molecular superimposition, 3D-pharmacophore technology, ethics, and good clinical practice (GCP) for the development of therapeutic drugs, devices, and vaccines.</p> Venkataramana Kandi Anusha Vundecode Tanmai Reddy Godalwar Sindhusree Dasari Sabitha Vadakedath Vikram Godishala ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-05-31 2022-05-31 5 2 161 178 10.33084/bjop.v5i2.3013 Trends of Influenza’s Symptoms Drug Search Terms in Indonesian-Language using Google Trends in the Covid-19 Pandemic http://journal.umpr.ac.id/index.php/bjop/article/view/2997 <p style="text-align: justify;">Covid-19 has spread globally and causes severe acute respiratory syndrome. The symptoms of covid-19 have similarities with influenza, such as cough, fever, runny nose, and sore throat. Therefore, the internet sources tend to have an increasing search related to influenza symptoms drugs. This study aims to assess the search trend of influenza symptoms drugs using google trend analysis in Indonesia. We explore google trend analysis using search terms in the Indonesian language related to influenza symptoms drugs from December 6<sup>th</sup>, 2020 to November 30<sup>th</sup>, 2021. The positive confirmed cases were obtained from the Indonesian government website <a href="https://covid19.go.id/">https://covid19.go.id/</a>. Our results demonstrated the increasing search terms related to influenza drug symptoms during July and August. The highest term search was “<em>obat batuk</em>”. The positive covid-19 confirmed cases in Indonesia increased during July and August. During the peak of the covid-19 outbreak in Indonesia in July-August 2021, there was an increase in google trends searching related to influenza’s drug symptoms.</p> Nailis Syifa' Nurul Purborini ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-05-31 2022-05-31 5 2 179 185 10.33084/bjop.v5i2.2997 Effect of Drug Information Service on Clinical Outcome of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Padang, Indonesia http://journal.umpr.ac.id/index.php/bjop/article/view/3301 <p style="text-align: justify;">Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been a health burden worldwide, including Indonesia. However, T2DM therapy needs a long and complex process, which patients often do not favor, thus making them does not take medications as instructed and negatively affecting clinical outcomes. This study aimed to understand the effect of Drug Information Service provision on the clinical outcome of T2DM patients. This quasi-experimental study was conducted using one group pre-post-test design. As the clinical outcome, the fasting blood glucose levels were measured before and after the intervention. A drug information service was provided through direct explanation to the patients. Sociodemographic data were analyzed descriptively. The difference in fasting blood glucose before and after the intervention was assessed using Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Forty patients participated in this study. Most participants are female (N=34; 85%) and receive two-drugs combination therapy of metformin and sulfonylureas (N=32; 77.5%). Although there is a decrease in mean fasting blood glucose level after intervention (174.92±59.561 vs. 184.20±49.768), there is no significant difference between fasting blood glucose levels pre-intervention and post-intervention (p&gt;0.05). It is concluded that despite the noticeable decline of blood glucose level after drug information service, its effect on blood glucose control is not significant.</p> Lailaturrahmi Lailaturrahmi Fuji Araswati Armenia Armenia Rahmi Yosmar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-05-31 2022-05-31 5 2 186 193 10.33084/bjop.v5i2.3301