Borneo Journal of Pharmacy 2023-05-31T00:00:00+00:00 Mohammad Rizki Fadhil Pratama Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Title: </strong>Borneo Journal of Pharmacy<br /><strong>ISSN: </strong><a href="">2621-4814</a> (Online)<br /><strong>Accreditation: </strong><a href="">SINTA 2</a> until 2025 by the Minister of Research and Technology/National Research and Innovation Agency, Indonesia No: <strong><a href="">148/M/KPT/2020</a></strong>.<br /><strong>Subject: </strong>Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences<br /><strong>Frequency: </strong>Quarterly (4 issues per year in February, May, August, and November) onward <strong>February 2020</strong><br /><strong>Indexed at: </strong><a href="">EMBASE</a>, <a href="">SINTA 2</a>,<strong> </strong><a href=";and_facet_source_title=jour.1365735">Dimensions</a>, <a href="">DOAJ</a>, <a href="">SHERPA RoMEO</a>, <a href="">Crossref,</a> <a href="">Index Copernicus International</a>, <a href="">ResearchBib</a>, <a href=";user=R7G787AAAAAJ">Google Scholar,</a> <a href="">GARUDA</a>, and <a href="">more</a><br /><strong>DOI: </strong><a href="">10.33084/bjop</a><br /><strong>Archive preservation: </strong><a href="[]=repoId:IOS6026">Indonesia OneSearch,</a><strong> </strong><a href="">GARUDA</a><br /><strong>Publisher: </strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Institute for Research and Community Services</a> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Universitas Muhammadiyah Palangkaraya</a> in collaboration with the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Central Board of the Indonesian Pharmacists Association <em>(Pengurus Pusat Ikatan Apoteker Indonesia)</em></a> <br /><strong>Editor in Chief: </strong><a href="">Mohammad Rizki Fadhil Pratama</a></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Borneo Journal of Pharmacy</strong> (<em>Borneo J Pharm</em>, ISSN: <em><a href="">2621-4814</a></em> (online)) is an international scientific platinum open-access journal managed by the <strong><a title="Department of Pharmacy Faculty of Health Science" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Department of Pharmacy Faculty of Health Science</a> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Universitas Muhammadiyah Palangkaraya</a></strong> in collaboration with the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Central Board of the Indonesian Pharmacists Association <em>(Pengurus Pusat Ikatan Apoteker Indonesia)</em></strong></a> and published four times a year (in February, May, August, and November) onward February 2020 by <strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Institute for Research and Community Services</a> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Universitas Muhammadiyah Palangkaraya</a></strong>. <strong>Borneo Journal of Pharmacy</strong> accepts scientific articles as <strong>original research articles</strong>, <strong>short communication</strong>, <strong>reviews,</strong> and <strong>mini-reviews</strong> from anyone without any discrimination, as long as they submit articles that meet scientific principles.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">As a distinctive feature, the <strong>Borneo Journal of Pharmacy</strong> prioritizes research articles conducted on the <strong>island of Borneo</strong> (consisting of <strong>Indonesia</strong>, <strong>Malaysia</strong>, and <strong>Brunei Darussalam</strong>), as well as those conducted by researchers from institutions on the island of Borneo. In every volume, there are always articles written by authors from the island of Borneo. However, articles from researchers outside the island of Borneo are also welcome.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Borneo Journal of Pharmacy</strong> publishes various scientific articles covering <strong>Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences</strong>, in the field but not limited to <strong>Pharmacology-Toxicology</strong>; <strong>Pharmacognosy-Phytochemistry</strong>; <strong>Pharmaceutical</strong>; <strong>Analytical Pharmacy-Medicinal Chemistry</strong>; <strong>Microbiology Pharmacy</strong>; <strong>Natural Product Development</strong>; <strong>Clinical-Community Pharmacy</strong>; and <strong>Management Pharmacy</strong>.</p> Ointment Formulation of Tapak Dara Flower (Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don) Ethanol Extract and its Activity in Burn-Healing 2023-03-29T01:57:37+00:00 Leny Leny Tetty Noverita Khairani Situmorang Rensus Siagian Ihsanul Hafiz Benni Iskandar <p style="text-align: justify;">Treatment done on burn wounds is intended to provide local therapy to heal as quickly as possible. The content of secondary metabolites in the Tapak Dara (<em>Catharanthus roseus</em> (L.) G. Don) flower can help the healing process of burns, namely alkaloids, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids. Alkaloids act as antibacterial; saponins can trigger collagen formation; tannins as astringents that cause shrinkage of skin pores and stop minor bleeding in wounds; and flavonoids have anti-inflammatory effects. This study aimed to formulate an ointment of <em>C. roseus</em> flower ethanol extract and determine its physical characteristics such as organoleptic test, homogeneity, pH value, dispersion, and stability test of the preparation and examine the activity as a burn healer in white male rats. The research data were analyzed statistically using the ANOVA method, followed by the LSD test (least significant difference) to see how the ointment-containing extract reduced the diameter and percentage of the burn wounds. The results show that all ethanol extracts of <em>C. roseus</em> flower ointments met the requirements for its physical characteristic tests. It offers a good activity as a burn healer in white male rats. The most effective concentration is an ointment containing 15% of ethanol extract from <em>C. roseus </em>flower (F3 group), which shows a significant difference (p <u>&lt;</u> 0.05) from the blank and the other group formula in burn wound healing.</p> 2023-05-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Leny Leny, Tetty Noverita Khairani Situmorang, Rensus Siagian, Ihsanul Hafiz, Benni Iskandar Antioxidant Activity and Phytochemicals of Locally Consumed Plant Foods from Baguio City, Philippines 2023-01-04T04:06:51+00:00 Paolo Robert P. Bueno Rachel Camille R. Cabrera Gracia Fe B. Yu <p><span data-preserver-spaces="true">In the Philippines, Baguio City – known as the “City of Pines” – holds the country’s major source of temperate climate vegetables. With increased dietary awareness, the consumption of plant foods rich in antioxidants has become relevant. Twenty-nine methanolic extracts from Baguio-produced plant foods were evaluated for antioxidant potential using DPPH, ferric reduction antioxidant power (FRAP), metal chelation, superoxide anion, nitric oxide, hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, MTT reduction, and phytochemical tests. </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">Fagopyrum tataricum</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> leaves, </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">Vaccinium myrtoides</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> fruit, and </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">Morus alba </span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">fruit showed the most effective DPP radical, concentration-dependent reducing power, but low metal chelating activity. </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">Solanum tuberosum</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> tuber (22.86±63.26%) showed effective concentration-dependent chelating activity at 125 μg/mL. </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">Citrus aurantium</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> fruit (26.77±9.24%) and </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">Raphanus raphanistrum</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> root (41.13±0.11%) demonstrated an effective scavenging activity against superoxide anions at 45.5 μg/mL. Significant nitric oxide scavenging activity was observed in some fruits. </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">Brassica oleracea</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> Cab leaves (54.36 ± 2.38%) showed the highest inhibitory activity against hydroxyl radicals at 166.7 μg/mL. Phytochemical analyses showed that most plant samples revealed the presence of glycosides, terpenes/terpenoids, and steroids/phytosterols, while few contained phenolic and tannin components. These phytochemicals may explain the dual behavior as an antioxidant or a prooxidant observed. Thus, determining food antioxidant component types and their concentration is necessary to maximize the potential to scavenge oxidants.</span></p> 2023-05-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Paolo Robert P. Bueno, Rachel Camille R. Cabrera, Gracia Fe B. Yu Analysis of Management Elements in Antibiotic Inventory Control with EOQ and MMSL Methods at Aisyiyah Hospital Bojonegoro 2022-09-16T18:52:05+00:00 Pramono Apriawan Wijayanto Ayun Sriatmi Sutopo Patria Jati <p style="text-align: justify;">Inventory control is important in managerial activities because it involves investment and is hospitals' most significant expenditure component. The Aisyiyah Bojonegoro Hospital requires a logistics management system that can maintain the safety and effectiveness of the use of drugs for the smooth running of hospital pharmaceutical services in the long term. This analytical observational study analyzes management elements in controlling antibiotic inventory by simulating the Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) and Minimum-Maximum Stock Level (MMSL) methods. Determination of the sample purposively, i.e., 17 types of antibiotic drugs category A from the results of the ABC analysis, with the inclusion criteria being high cost, high volume, clinically important drugs for antibiotic drugs that are included in the 2020 Hospital Formulary and the exclusion criteria are drugs with inadequate supply. The analysis technique used the Mann-Whitney test and the Kruskal-Wallis test. Based on the results of the study, it was concluded that. Applying the EOQ and MMSL methods has been proven to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the supply of category A antibiotics at Aisyiyah Hospital, Bojonegoro.</p> 2023-05-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Pramono Apriawan Wijayanto, Ayun Sriatmi, Sutopo Patria Jati Solubility and Scale-Up Potency of Norfloxacin-Urea Co-Crystal Prepared by Ultrasound-Assisted Slurry Co-Crystallization Method 2022-11-29T00:27:13+00:00 Fikri Alatas Dery Stiawan Nur Achsan Al-Hakim <p>Norfloxacin is an antimicrobial in treating urinary tract infections with low water solubility. This study aims to know the effect of norfloxacin-urea co-crystal formation on the solubility of norfloxacin and the potential for scale-up when prepared by ultrasound-assisted slurry co-crystallization method. Identification of the screening result of the norfloxacin-urea (1 : 1) co-crystal formation by a wet grinding method using an ethanol-acetone (1 : 1) solvent mixture was performed by powder X-ray diffractometer (PXRD). The ultrasound-assisted slurry co-crystallization method was used for co-crystal formation with five-fold the weight of norfloxacin and urea than the wet grinding method. The co-crystal product prepared by the ultrasound-assisted slurry co-crystallization method was observed for its crystal morphology and characterized by PXRD and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Solubility and dissolution tests in water and acetate buffer solution pH 4.0 were used to evaluate the physicochemical properties. Identification of co-crystal screening by PXRD revealed the formation of norfloxacin-urea co-crystal. The PXRD pattern of the norfloxacin-urea co-crystal product prepared by the ultrasound-assisted slurry co-crystallization method was similar to the wet grinding method. Norfloxacin-urea co-crystal has a different melting point and crystal morphology from pure norfloxacin and urea. The solubility and dissolution rate of norfloxacin-urea co-crystal was higher in water and not significantly different in acetate buffer solution pH 4.0 compared to pure norfloxacin. This study showed that the norfloxacin-urea co-crystal formation could enhance the solubility of norfloxacin in water and had the potential for scale-up when prepared using the ultrasound-assisted slurry co-crystallization method.</p> 2023-05-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Fikri Alatas, Dery Stiawan, Nur Achsan Al-Hakim Identification of Biological Risk Genes and Candidate Drugs for Psoriasis Vulgaris by Utilizing the Genomic Information 2022-11-29T00:40:52+00:00 Lisza Niarisessa Anisa Nova Puspitaningrum Arief Rahman Afief Dyah Aryani Perwitasari Wirawan Adikusuma Rocky Cheung Abdi Wira Septama Lalu Muhammad Irham <p><span data-preserver-spaces="true">Psoriasis is an autoimmune disease that causes inflammation on the skin's surface, characterized by the appearance of pink plaques covered with white scales. Currently, the availability of psoriasis vulgaris therapy is still limited. Therefore, considering the discovery of new drug candidates by utilizing genetic variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) through drug repurposing, is a profitable method. The SNP associated with psoriasis was obtained from Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) and Phenom Wide Association Studies (PheWAS) databases. We identified 245 SNPs associated with psoriasis vulgaris with criteria of r<sup>2</sup> &gt;0.8. To prioritize the candidate of a gene associated with psoriasis, we used five criteria of functional annotation (missense/nonsense, cis-eQTL, PPI, KEGG, Ko mice) where if there were more than two criteria of assessment, they were defined as the risk gene of psoriasis vulgaris. Fifty-two genes were identified as the risk gene of psoriasis vulgaris, then expanded using the STRING database to obtain more gene candidates of drug targets. The result is 104 genes candidates for drug targets, of which 24 overlapped with 96 drugs, according to DrugBank. Of the 96 drugs that have been approved for other indications, we found that five drugs (ustekinumab, tildrakizumab, riszankizumab, guselkumab, and etanercept) are currently in clinical trials for the treatment of psoriasis that target two genes (</span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">IL23A</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> and </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">TNF</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">). We argue that these two genes are the most promising targets based on their high target scores on functional annotations. This research explains the potential that utilizing genomic variation can contribute to drug discovery.</span></p> 2023-05-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Lisza Niarisessa, Anisa Nova Puspitaningrum, Arief Rahman Afief, Dyah Aryani Perwitasari, Wirawan Adikusuma, Rocky Cheung, Abdi Wira Septama, Lalu Muhammad Irham The Effect of Long Exposure Reed Diffuser Essential Oil Plumeria alba on Cortisol Levels of Male Wistar Rats 2023-01-04T02:53:07+00:00 Siska Siska Tahyatul Bariroh Supandi Supandi <p><span data-preserver-spaces="true">Stress can occur due to a person's inability to respond to a stressor, resulting in bodily or mental disorders. Anxiety can be characterized by increased levels of cortisol, which is regulated by the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenaline (HPA-axis). Aromatherapy is a therapy using essential oils that give a distinctive aroma to plant parts such as flowers, roots, leaves, and stems. Aromatherapy can be done through a reed diffuser. The frangipani (</span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">Plumeria alba</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">) is one of the plants in Indonesia that has a particular scent in its flowers. This study aims to determine the effect of prolonged exposure to </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">P. alba </span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">essential oil reed diffuser on cortisol levels in rats. Twenty-four rats were divided into four groups: the control group without exposure to a reed diffuser for 5 and 10 days and the other group with exposure for 5 and 10 days. Each blood was drawn through the retro-orbital, centrifuged to obtain serum, and tested using LC-MS to determine cortisol levels. The group with ten days of essential oil exposure showed lower cortisol levels. It can be concluded that the duration of aromatherapy exposure is connected to cortisol levels and that aromatherapy can be utilized as a stress-reduction therapy.</span></p> 2023-05-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Siska Siska, Tahyatul Bariroh, Supandi Supandi Phytochemical Analysis and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of The Combination of Trigona apicalis propolis Extract and Honey 2023-04-05T04:00:55+00:00 Paula Mariana Kustiawan Chaerul Fadly Mochtar Luthfi M Sinta Ratna Dewi Jati Pratiwi Novia Misnawati Aisyiyah Alfin Syahrian Dwi Nugraha Irfan Muris Setiawan <p>Chronic inflammation is common in infectious diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, and autoimmune diseases. However, using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is accompanied by dangerous side effects. Therefore, searching for safer alternative therapies without side effects is very important. A natural blend of ingredients produced by stingless bees from plants was potential as a remedy. Meanwhile, the potential of kelulut bee products from East Kalimantan as an anti-inflammatory is still unknown. This study aimed to compare the chemical composition of kelulut bee (<em>Trigona apicalis</em>) products and evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of honey, propolis, and their combination. Propolis extract and honey were determined as secondary metabolites. An anti-inflammatory <em>in vivo</em> assay triggered the edema using carrageenan on male mice and measured its anti-inflammatory power value. Propolis extract and honey from <em>T. apicalis</em> have a promising anti-inflammatory effect and are significantly higher than the positive control. Meanwhile, combining propolis extract and honey did not enhance the anti-inflammatory effect. In addition, combining honey and propolis preparations with a ratio of 75 : 25 has a better effect on reducing edema volume than the other two combinations. Still, it is not better than the treatment with propolis extract or honey alone. The content of polyphenol compounds found in honey and propolis preparations is thought to have an important role in reducing edema volume.</p> 2023-05-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Paula Mariana Kustiawan, Chaerul Fadly Mochtar Luthfi M, Sinta Ratna Dewi, Jati Pratiwi, Novia Misnawati Aisyiyah, Alfin Syahrian Dwi Nugraha, Irfan Muris Setiawan Tentative Identification of Compounds, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial Activity of the Edible Part of Benincasa hispida L. fruit (Cucurbitaceae) 2023-01-04T02:42:52+00:00 Carla Wulandari Sabandar Harni Sartika Kamaruddin Reskiya Nur Insani Rana Triana Amin Zulkifli Zulkifli Tien Tien <p><span data-preserver-spaces="true">The edible part of </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">Benicasa hispida</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> (Thunb.) Cogn. fruit is traditionally used in Southeast Sulawesi to treat high blood pressure, typhoid fever, and body cooling. The present study evaluated the chemical compounds present in the 80% ethanol of the edible part of the plant using phytochemical screening and an LC-MS analysis, antioxidant activity based on assays on total phenolics content (TPC), total flavonoids content (TFC), and DPPH, and antimicrobial activity towards </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">Salmonella typhi</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">, </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">Escherichia coli</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">, </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">Staphylococcus aureus</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">, and </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">Candida albicans</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids, and saponins in the extract. As many as eighteen compounds (</span><strong><span data-preserver-spaces="true">1-18</span></strong><span data-preserver-spaces="true">) were tentatively identified in the extract, including sugars, a simple phenolic, a tricarboxylic acid, a peptide, flavonoids, quinic acid derivatives, phytosterols, triterpenoids, and saponins. The extract exhibited remarkable antioxidant activity with an SC<sub>50</sub> value of 23.4 µg/mL, although its TPC (1.1±0.1 mg GAE/g extract) and TFC (1.0±0.1 mg QE/g extract) values were considered in low amounts. The extract was found inactive to inhibit the microbial growths of all tested microbes. However, raffinose (</span><strong><span data-preserver-spaces="true">3</span></strong><span data-preserver-spaces="true">) present in the extract might be beneficial as a prebiotic to promote a healthy human gut. The study concludes that the 80% ethanol extract of the edible part of </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">B. hispida</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> fruit could be used to develop natural antioxidant agents and nutraceuticals.</span></p> 2023-05-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Carla Wulandari Sabandar, Harni Sartika Kamaruddin, Reskiya Nur Insani, Rana Triana Amin, Zulkifli Zulkifli, Tien Tien Antioxidant Activity of n-Hexane and Etil Acetate Fraction of Bangkal (Nauclea subdita (Korth.) Steud.) Leaves 2023-02-21T08:31:14+00:00 Arnida Arnida Al Madani Sutomo Sutomo <p><span data-preserver-spaces="true">Bangkal (</span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">Nauclea subdita</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> (Korth.) Steud.) is a tropical plant belonging to the Rubiaceae family, commonly found in South Kalimantan. This plant is one of the plants that has efficacy as a medicinal plant. This study aimed to quantitatively identify secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity in the <em>n</em>-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions of </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">N. subdita</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> leaves. The method of identification of secondary metabolites using the test tube. Antioxidant activity using the DPPH method based on IC<sub>50</sub> value. The results of identifying secondary metabolites in the </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">n</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">-hexane fraction of </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">N. subdita</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> leaves contain alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, and phenolic compounds, while the ethyl acetate fraction of </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">N. subdita</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> leaves contain alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, tannins, saponins, and phenolics. The results of the antioxidant activity test of the </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">n</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">-hexane fraction and the ethyl acetate fraction of the leaves of </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">N. subdita</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> showed IC<sub>50</sub> values ​​of 229.61178±3.65919 and 54.54296±0.02236 ppm, respectively. Based on the IC<sub>50</sub> value, the </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">n</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">-hexane fraction of </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">N. subdita</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> leaves had weak antioxidant activity, and the ethyl acetate fraction of </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">N. subdita</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> leaves had strong antioxidant activity.</span></p> 2023-05-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Arnida Arnida, Al Madani, Sutomo Sutomo In-Silico Design and Evaluation of the Anti-Wolbachia Potential of Boron-Pleuromutilins 2023-02-20T10:49:24+00:00 Fabian Audu Ugbe Gideon Adamu Shallangwa Adamu Uzairu Ibrahim Abdulkadir <p><span data-preserver-spaces="true">Filariasis (Lymphatic filariasis and Onchocerciasis) is a common neglected tropical disease caused by parasitic nematodes called filarial worms, which often host the <em>Wolbachia</em> bacteria. A good treatment approach seeks </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">Wolbachia</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> as a drug target. Here, a computer-aided design of some boron-pleuromutilin analogs was conducted using the ligand-based drug design approach while performing molecular docking investigation and pharmacokinetics analyses to evaluate their drug-likeness properties. The newly designed compounds (</span><strong><span data-preserver-spaces="true">49a</span></strong><span data-preserver-spaces="true">, </span><strong><span data-preserver-spaces="true">49b,</span></strong><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> and </span><strong><span data-preserver-spaces="true">49c)</span></strong><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> showed improved inhibitory activities (pEC<sub>50</sub>) over those of the template and the clinically relevant pleuromutilins (retapamulin and lefamulin) in the order; </span><strong><span data-preserver-spaces="true">49b</span></strong><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> (pEC<sub>50</sub> = 9.0409) &gt; </span><strong><span data-preserver-spaces="true">49c</span></strong><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> (8.8175) &gt; </span><strong><span data-preserver-spaces="true">49a</span></strong><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> (8.5930) &gt; template (</span><strong><span data-preserver-spaces="true">49</span></strong><span data-preserver-spaces="true">) (8.4222) &gt; retapamulin (6.7403) &gt; lefamulin (6.1369). Standard docking performed with OTU deubiquitinase (6W9O) revealed the order of binding energies; </span><strong><span data-preserver-spaces="true">49c</span></strong><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> (-88.07 kcal/mol)</span><strong><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> </span></strong><span data-preserver-spaces="true">&gt; </span><strong><span data-preserver-spaces="true">49b</span></strong><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> (-84.26 kcal/mol) &gt; doxycycline (-83.70 kcal/mol) &gt; template (-82.57 kcal/mol) &gt; </span><strong><span data-preserver-spaces="true">49a</span></strong><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> (-78.43 kcal/mol) &gt; lefamulin (-76.83 kcal/mol) &gt; retapamulin (-76.78 kcal/mol), with the new compounds all showing good pharmacological interactions with the receptor’s amino acids. The new analogs were also predicted to be orally bioavailable with better pharmacokinetic profiles than the template, retapamulin, lefamulin, and doxycycline having no more than one violation of Lipinski’s ROF. Therefore, the newly designed compounds could be considered potential anti-filarial drug candidates.</span></p> 2023-05-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Fabian Audu Ugbe, Gideon Adamu Shallangwa, Adamu Uzairu, Ibrahim Abdulkadir