Borneo Journal of Pharmacy 2022-11-30T00:00:00+00:00 Mohammad Rizki Fadhil Pratama Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Title: </strong>Borneo Journal of Pharmacy<br /><strong>ISSN: </strong><a href="">2621-4814</a> (Online)<br /><strong>Accreditation: </strong><a href="">SINTA 2</a> until 2025 by the Minister of Research and Technology/National Research and Innovation Agency, Indonesia No: <strong><a href="">148/M/KPT/2020</a></strong>.<br /><strong>Subject: </strong>Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences<br /><strong>Frequency: </strong>Quarterly (4 issues per year in February, May, August, and November) onward <strong>February 2020</strong><br /><strong>Indexed at: </strong><a href="">EMBASE</a>, <a href="">SINTA 2</a>,<strong> </strong><a href=";and_facet_source_title=jour.1365735">Dimensions</a>, <a href="">DOAJ</a>, <a href="">SHERPA RoMEO</a>, <a href="">Crossref,</a> <a href="">Index Copernicus International</a>, <a href="">ResearchBib</a>, <a href=";user=R7G787AAAAAJ">Google Scholar,</a> <a href="">GARUDA</a>, and <a href="">more</a><br /><strong>DOI: </strong><a href="">10.33084/bjop</a><br /><strong>Archive preservation: </strong><a href="[]=repoId:IOS6026">Indonesia OneSearch,</a><strong> </strong><a href="">GARUDA</a><br /><strong>Publisher: </strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Institute for Research and Community Services</a> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Universitas Muhammadiyah Palangkaraya</a> in collaboration with the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Central Board of the Indonesian Pharmacists Association <em>(Pengurus Pusat Ikatan Apoteker Indonesia)</em></a> <br /><strong>Editor in Chief: </strong><a href="">Mohammad Rizki Fadhil Pratama</a></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Borneo Journal of Pharmacy</strong> (<em>Borneo J Pharm</em>, ISSN: <em><a href="">2621-4814</a></em> (online)) is an international scientific platinum open-access journal managed by the <strong><a title="Department of Pharmacy Faculty of Health Science" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Department of Pharmacy Faculty of Health Science</a> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Universitas Muhammadiyah Palangkaraya</a></strong> in collaboration with the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Central Board of the Indonesian Pharmacists Association <em>(Pengurus Pusat Ikatan Apoteker Indonesia)</em></strong></a> and published four times a year (in February, May, August, and November) onward February 2020 by <strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Institute for Research and Community Services</a> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Universitas Muhammadiyah Palangkaraya</a></strong>. <strong>Borneo Journal of Pharmacy</strong> accepts scientific articles as <strong>original research articles</strong>, <strong>short communication</strong>, <strong>reviews,</strong> and <strong>mini-reviews</strong> from anyone without any discrimination, as long as they submit articles that meet scientific principles.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">As a distinctive feature, the <strong>Borneo Journal of Pharmacy</strong> prioritizes research articles conducted on the <strong>island of Borneo</strong> (consisting of <strong>Indonesia</strong>, <strong>Malaysia</strong>, and <strong>Brunei Darussalam</strong>), as well as those conducted by researchers from institutions on the island of Borneo. In every volume, there are always articles written by authors from the island of Borneo. However, articles from researchers outside the island of Borneo are also welcome.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Borneo Journal of Pharmacy</strong> publishes various scientific articles covering <strong>Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences</strong>, in the field but not limited to <strong>Pharmacology-Toxicology</strong>; <strong>Pharmacognosy-Phytochemistry</strong>; <strong>Pharmaceutical</strong>; <strong>Analytical Pharmacy-Medicinal Chemistry</strong>; <strong>Microbiology Pharmacy</strong>; <strong>Natural Product Development</strong>; <strong>Clinical-Community Pharmacy</strong>; and <strong>Management Pharmacy</strong>.</p> Formulation and Evaluation of Natural Gel Containing Ethanolic Extract of Pandanus amaryllifolius R. Using Various Gelling Agents 2022-10-09T08:46:14+00:00 Dyera Forestryana Annisa Hayati Aristha Novyra Putri <p style="text-align: justify;">Ethanol extract of <em>Pandanus amaryllifolius </em>leaves contains quercetin has anti-inflammatory properties. The gel dosage form is very appropriate for wound healing therapy because it gives a cold sensation to the skin. This study aims to formulate a <em>P. amaryllifolius </em>gel by variation of a gelling agent to compare the effect of a natural gelling agent, semi-synthetic gelling agent, and synthetic gelling agent on the physical characteristics of the gel. The gel formulation was made in three formulas. Evaluations include organoleptic, homogeneity, spreadability, adhesion, pH, and viscosity. The optimum gel formula was tested for release study using a dissolution apparatus 5. Determination of release kinetics model using the kinetics approach of zero-order, first-order, Higuchi, and Korsmeyer-Peppas. The organoleptic shows the gel's dark green color, <em>P. amaryllifolius </em>aromas, and good homogeneity. The gel formulas had pH values that matched the physical quality criteria of the gel. Data obtained for the spreadability test for F1, F2, and F3 were 12.16, 14.66, and 10.75, respectively. The F1, F2, and F3 adhesion test results were 11.66, 10, and 47.33, respectively. The viscosity of F1 was 15750 cps, F2 was 4807 cps, and F3 was 19380 cps. This study concludes that the optimum formula is obtained from the gelling agent of Na-CMC as a gelling agent. The number of quercetin released from F2 was 42.76%, and the release kinetics model followed the kinetics of Higuchi.</p> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Dyera Forestryana, Annisa Hayati, Aristha Novyra Putri Antiproliferative Potency of God’s Crown Fruit (Phaleria macrocarpa) Extract Against Breast Cancer Cell 2022-10-09T08:44:14+00:00 Hasim Hasim Yonathan Arderian Mantik Husnawati Husnawati Bambang Pontjo Priosoeryanto Ratna Puspita <p style="text-align: justify;">Breast cancer is a sickness caused by abnormal cell growth in the breast. Mahkota Dewa fruit or god’s crown fruit products (<em>Phaleria macrocarpa</em>) contain flavonoids, alkaloids, polyphenols, and tannins associated with active compounds. This work directs to influence the potency of <em>P. macrocarpa</em> fruit as an antiproliferative agent against breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cells). The antiproliferative potency of <em>P. macrocarpa</em> fruit was proved by extracting and fractionating <em>P. macrocarpa</em> fruit using maceration. The cytotoxicity of extracts and fractions was determined using Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT). The antiproliferative potency against MCF-7 cells was tested using the hemacytometer approach. This work demonstrates the crude ethanol extract, <em>n</em>-hexane fraction, ethyl acetate fraction, and water fraction. The LC<sub>50</sub> values in crude ethanol extract, <em>n</em>-hexane fraction, ethyl acetate fraction, and water fraction were 13.72 ppm, 147.55 ppm, 405.81 ppm, and 149. 07 ppm severally. <em>Phaleria macrocarpa</em> fruit has shown antiproliferation potency against MCF-7 cells. The maximum part of crude ethanol extract antiproliferative potency (56 ppm) effectively suppressed MCF-7 cell growth by 70. 9% while doxorubicin (100 ppm) by 46. 92%. This work confirms that crude ethanol extract of <em>P. macrocarpa</em> fruit interacts synergistically as an antiproliferative compound against MCF-7 cells.</p> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Hasim Hasim, Yonathan Arderian Mantik, Husnawati Husnawati, Bambang Pontjo Priosoeryanto, Ratna Puspita Illness Risk Perceptions and Efficacy Beliefs Among Indonesian In The Course of COVID-19 Pandemic 2022-09-15T10:36:25+00:00 Lolita Lolita Azis Ikhsanudin <p style="text-align: justify;">COVID-19, a worldwide pandemic, has posed a significant challenge for public health systems worldwide. Health risk perception and efficacy belief are primary constructs influencing individuals' protective behavior due to the outbreak. Our study investigated each item of illness risk perception, efficacy belief, and its related factors concerning the COVID-19 pandemic. An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted among 227 respondents aged 17 to 70. Data collection was conducted using convenience sampling by distributing the web questionnaire between April and July 2020. Mann-Whitney or Kruskal-Wallis bivariate analysis was performed using SPSS version 21.0 to assess the relationship between individual characteristic factors among the illness risk perception and efficacy belief. The study established that respondents had a medium to a high level of illness risk perception and a reasonable efficacy belief in dealing with the COVID-19 pandemic. Region (p=0.027) and occupation (p=0.036) differences were significantly associated with the threat and severity perception, respectively. Smoking history (p=0.037), supplement use (p=0.029), and occupation (p=0.018) differences were significantly associated with self-efficacy. Meanwhile, gender (p=0.045) differences were significantly associated with response efficacy. Therefore, the public's illness risk perception and efficacy belief could be substantial in planning, modifying, and implementing a coordinated response for risk communication in current and future epidemics.</p> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Lolita Lolita, Azis Ikhsanudin Antibiotics Resistant Pattern of Bacteria Isolated from Spoiled Avocado Fruit Sold in Sokoto Metropolis 2022-10-09T09:01:18+00:00 Adamu Almustapha Aliero Felicia Yakubu Turba Ahmad Ibrahim Bagudo Abdul’azeez Aishat Folake Sule Sahabi Manga <p style="text-align: justify;">Consuming fruit contaminated with bacteria remains a crucial route of foodborne infection in developing countries and creates a severe public health burden. The research aimed to determine the antibiotic-resistant pattern of bacteria associated with the spoilage of Avocado pear (<em>Persea americana</em>) sold in the Sokoto metropolis. Twenty spoilt avocado fruits were obtained from market three in Sokoto Metropolis. The bacteriological analysis was carried out using the pour plate method. The antibiotic resistance pattern was determined using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. A total of five species of bacteria were isolated and identified in this study. The mean and standard error of total viable bacterial counts of avocado samples across three different locations ranged from 4.20 ± 5.77 to 8.43 ± 33.49 (x 104cfu/g). A total of 19 bacterial isolates were identified from avocado samples.&nbsp;<em>Staphylococcus aureus&nbsp;</em>had the highest frequency of occurrence, 16 (29.2%), while<em>&nbsp;Klebsiella&nbsp;</em>sp<em>&nbsp;</em>had the lowest frequency of occurrence, 7 (12.7%). Among all antibiotics tested against bacterial species,&nbsp;<em>E. coli</em>&nbsp;isolates were found to have 10(91%) and 9 (82) resistance against Ciprofloxacin and Streptomycin, respectively.&nbsp;<em>Pseudomonas&nbsp;</em>sp was found to be (100%) resistant to chloramphenicol and Septrin. However,&nbsp;<em>S. aureus</em>&nbsp;was found to have 12 (72%) resistance to Pefloxacin. Similarly,&nbsp;<em>Klebsiella</em>&nbsp;spp. were found to be 7 (100%) resistant to Septrin. Isolation of these bacterial species, especially&nbsp;<em>E. coli</em>&nbsp;from avocado samples analyzed, is of public health significance, especially the presence of antibiotic resistance species.</p> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Adamu Almustapha Aliero, Felicia Yakubu Turba, Ahmad Ibrahim Bagudo, Abdul’azeez Aishat Folake, Sule Sahabi Manga Hand Sanitizer Gel Formulation with Laccase Enzyme as an Antibacterial Against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli 2022-10-09T10:09:39+00:00 Sita Heris Anita Asishe Asishe Vilya Syafriana Amelia Febriani Deni Zulfiana Maulida Oktaviani Oktan Dwi Nurhayat Dede Heri Yuli Yanto <p style="text-align: justify;">Laccase enzymes have been used widely in industrial fields such as textile, pulp, paper, food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. Laccase is used in toothpaste, mouthwash, deodorants, and soaps in personal care products. Previously, laccase enzymes had never been used for formulating hand sanitizer gel. This study aimed to determine the effect of the laccase enzyme on the physicochemical properties and the antibacterial potential of the hand sanitizer gel against pathogenic bacteria. Laccase enzyme was produced through fermentation using the fungus <em>Trametes hirsuta</em> EDN 082 with an activity of 0.032 U/mL. Hand sanitizer gel was made with the addition of laccase enzyme with varying concentrations of 4%, 7%, and 10% (v/v). The physicochemical test included organoleptic tests, pH evaluation, gel spreadability, and viscosity. The antibacterial was tested by the palm swab method. The gel physicochemical characteristics showed that the more laccase enzyme added, the more yellow the color produced, the less thick the shape, the wider the gel spreadability, and the lower the viscosity. The obtained pH ranged from 7.4 to 7.6. The best formulation of the hand sanitizer gel was achieved with the addition of a 7% (v/v) laccase enzyme. This formulation can reduce the number of bacteria colonies of <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Escherichia coli</em> on the palms with effectiveness above 95%. The laccase enzyme can be used as an active ingredient and antibacterial agent in the formulation of hand sanitizers.</p> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Sita Heris Anita, Asishe Asishe, Vilya Syafriana, Amelia Febriani, Deni Zulfiana, Maulida Oktaviani, Oktan Dwi Nurhayat, Dede Heri Yuli Yanto Antioxidant Activity of 96% Ethanol Extract of Pepaya Jepang Leaves (Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (Mill.) I. M. Johnst) Using DPPH Method (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) 2022-10-09T09:12:08+00:00 Riskianto Riskianto Melieta Windi Karnelasatri Karnelasatri Maroloan Aruan <p style="text-align: justify;">Free radicals in the human body can be helped neutralized by natural antioxidants derived from plants. Pepaya Jepang (<em>Cnidoscolus aconitifolius</em> (Mill.) I.M.Johnst) contains antioxidant compounds such as flavonoids and polyphenols. This study examined the antioxidant activity of 96% ethanol extract of <em>C. aconitifolius</em> leaves. Maceration of <em>C. aconitifolius</em> leaves using 96% ethanol solvent, phytochemical screening, and antioxidant activity assay was carried out with 1,1-Diphenyl-2-Picryl Hydrazil (DPPH) on 96% ethanol extract of <em>C. aconitifolius</em>. Extraction obtained a yield of 16.1834%, and phytochemical screening on the 96% ethanol extract of <em>C. aconitifolius </em>contained flavonoids, tannins, saponins, phenols, alkaloids, and steroids. The antioxidant activity assay on 96% ethanol extract of <em>C. aconitifolius</em> had an IC<sub>50</sub> value of 145.3855 ppm and an IC<sub>50</sub> value of vitamin C of 7.0806 ppm. The Antioxidant Activity Index (AAI) of 96% ethanol extract of <em>C. aconitifolius </em>was 0.4127, and the AAI of vitamin C was 8.4739. Based on the results obtained, although in a weak classification, a 96% ethanol extract of <em>C. aconitifolius</em> leaves has antioxidant activity.</p> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Riskianto Riskianto, Melieta Windi, Karnelasatri Karnelasatri, Maroloan Aruan Phytochemical Composition and Antioxidant Potential of Hyphaene thebaica Fruit 2022-10-09T09:30:56+00:00 Muhammad Mubarak Dahiru Margret Samuel Nadro <p style="text-align: justify;">The nature and application of medicinal plants in managing complications of various ailments are attributed partly to the presence of different phytochemicals. Oxidative stress due to increased levels of reactive oxygen species is a challenge in the management of such ailments, which might lead to death. This study aimed to determine the phytochemical composition and antioxidant potential of <em>Hyphaene thebaica</em> fruit. The phytochemicals in methanol, aqueous, and ethyl acetate extract were qualitatively determined, followed by quantitation of the ethyl acetate extract as it contains phytochemicals absent in the other extracts. The <em>in vitro</em> antioxidant potential of the ethyl acetate extract of <em>H. thebaica</em> fruit was also determined. The result revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, terpenoids, and flavonoids in all the extracts. However, steroids were not detected in the aqueous extract, and glycoside was detected only in the ethyl acetate extract. Flavonoids (5.80±0.20%) were higher than all the other phytochemicals in the ethyl acetate extract, followed by saponins which were present up to 2.50±0.11%, then terpenoids. Glycosides were present in higher amounts compared to steroids. However, alkaloids (0.08±0.05%) were in smaller amounts compared to the other phytochemicals quantified. The antioxidant activity showed a concentration-dependent increase in absorbance of the extract as displayed by the standard (ascorbic acid). The extract had an IC<sub>50</sub> of 52.21 µg/mL, significantly (p &lt;0.05) higher than that of the standard (14.10 µg/mL). Due to its phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity, <em>H. thebaica</em> can be used as a medicinal plant.</p> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Muhammad Mubarak Dahiru, Margret Samuel Nadro Antibacterial Activity and TLC-Densitometric Analysis of Secondary Metabolites in the Leaves of the Traditional Herb, Melastoma malabathricum L. 2022-10-09T10:48:17+00:00 Dian Mayasari Yosi Bayu Murti Sylvia Utami Tunjung Pratiwi Sudarsono Sudarsono <p style="text-align: justify;">Indonesia is rich in the biodiversity of medicinal plants used traditionally for healing several ailments. <em>Melastoma</em> <em>malabathricum</em> L. is one of the traditional herbs used to treat many diseases. A TLC-densitometric method was developed for determining secondary metabolites such as phenolic compounds and their related compounds, <em>M. malabathricum</em> leaves from Riau, Indonesia. This study investigated the secondary metabolites of <em>M. malabathricum</em> extract by spraying reagent: FeCl<sub>3</sub>, <em>p</em>-anisaldehyde, and cerium (IV) sulfate and followed by antibacterial assay through broth macro dilution method. Densitometric qualitative analysis of phenolic compounds and their related compounds was employed to examine peaks of the <em>M. malabathricum</em> extract through winCATS software. After spraying with particular reagents, the three extracts showed various spots/bands with several colors and exhibited peaks in TLC densitogram profiles. Three extracts were tested for antibacterial activity against <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Escherichia coli</em>. The result showed that ethyl acetate extract revealed excellent antibacterial activity against <em>S. aureus</em> and <em>E. coli</em> with MIC values of 3.125±0.6 mg/mL and 6.25±0.5 mg/mL, respectively. Owing to the presence of a wide variety of secondary metabolites, the leaf extract of <em>M. malabathricum</em> is expected to exhibit and help develop as a therapeutic agent.</p> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Dian Mayasari, Yosi Bayu Murti, Sylvia Utami Tunjung Pratiwi, Sudarsono Sudarsono Phenolic and Flavonoid Content of Black Mulberry (Morus nigra L.) Stem and Their Evaluation Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Profile 2022-10-09T10:32:08+00:00 Syamsu Nur Fitriyanti Jumaetri Sami Marwati Marwati Nursamsiar Nursamsiar Alfat Fadri Khairuddin Khairuddin <p style="text-align: justify;">The black mulberry plant has been widely developed for its bioactivity as natural medicine. This study evaluated plant extracts' total phenolic and flavonoid content and their correlation to black mulberry stem's antioxidant activity and toxicity. Dry powder from the black mulberry stem was extracted by maceration with 96% ethanol to obtain a thick extract (TE) and fractionated using hexane (HF), ethyl acetate (EAF), and Ethanol-aqueous (EF). The samples were analyzed for a compound using reagents and the determination of total phenolic and flavonoid content. The samples were evaluated for antioxidant activity using several parameters and their cytotoxic effects using the BSLT method. Identification of compounds in EAF was confirmed to contain phenolic, flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, steroids, and terpenoids. EAF showed higher phenolic and flavonoid content than others. The evaluation of antioxidant activity showed that extracts and fractions from mulberry stems showed the ability to reduce ions and free radicals. EF sample has activity in reducing Mo (IV) ion by TAC method of 98.82±0.53 µM/mg, indicating substantial antioxidant capacity. In addition, EAF samples showed potential activity in reducing DPPH, hydroxyl, and peroxide radicals in the BCB method with IC<sub>50</sub> values of 12.13 µg/mL, 42.06 µg/mL, and 57.6 µg/mL, respectively. Similar activity was also seen in the cytotoxic effect of a robust EAF sample with an LC<sub>50</sub> value of 16.31 µg/mL. From the results obtained, EAF can be developed as a raw material for traditional medicine as an antioxidant and anticancer candidate with a significant content of flavonoids and phenolics.</p> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Syamsu Nur, Fitriyanti Jumaetri Sami, Marwati Marwati, Nursamsiar Nursamsiar, Alfat Fadri, Khairuddin Khairuddin In Silico Molecular Docking and ADMET Analysis for Drug Development of Phytoestrogens Compound with Its Evaluation of Neurodegenerative Diseases 2022-10-09T10:52:46+00:00 Faisal Akhmal Muslikh Reyhan Rahma Samudra Burhan Ma’arif Zulvikar Syambani Ulhaq Suko Hardjono Mangestuti Agil <p style="text-align: justify;">Neurodegenerative disease is one of the problems faced by postmenopausal women due to estrogen deficiency. Phytoestrogen compounds can be used as an alternative treatment for diseases caused by estrogen deficiency by binding to their receptors through the estrogen receptor (ER) dependent pathway. With in silico studies, this study aims to predict how phytoestrogen compounds will stop neurons from dying by using the dependent ER pathway. Genistein, Daidzein, Glycitein, Formonoetin, Biochanin A, Equol, Pinoresinol, 4-methoxypinoresinol, Eudesmin, α-amyrin, and β-amyrin compounds were prepared with ChemDraw Ultra 12.0. Then their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties were examined using the SwissADME webtool. Geometry optimization of the compound was performed using Avogadro 1.0.1, and molecular docking of the compound to the ERα (1A52) and ERβ (5TOA) receptors was performed using Autodock vina (PyRx 0.8). The interaction visualization stage was carried out with Biovia Discover Studio 2021, while the toxicity values of the compounds were analyzed using the pkCSM online toll and ProTox II online tool. The results showed that the equol compound met the pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, toxicity criteria, and had similarities with the native ligand 17β-estradiol. Equol compound inhibits neurodegeneration via an ER-dependent pathway by binding to ER (1A52) and ER (5TOA) receptors.</p> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Faisal Akhmal Muslikh, Reyhan Rahma Samudra, Burhan Ma’arif, Zulvikar Syambani Ulhaq, Suko Hardjono, Mangestuti Agil