Borneo Journal of Pharmacy 2024-04-25T04:31:40+00:00 Mohammad Rizki Fadhil Pratama Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Title: </strong>Borneo Journal of Pharmacy<br /><strong>ISSN: </strong><a href="">2621-4814</a> (Online)<br /><strong>Accreditation: <a href="">SINTA 2</a></strong> until 2025 by the Minister of Research and Technology/National Research and Innovation Agency, Indonesia No: <strong><a href="">148/M/KPT/2020</a></strong>.<br /><strong>Subject: </strong>Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences<br /><strong>Frequency: </strong>Quarterly (4 issues per year in February, May, August, and November) onward <strong>February 2020</strong><br /><strong>Indexed at: </strong><a href="">EMBASE</a>, <a href="">SINTA 2</a>,<strong> </strong><a href=";and_facet_source_title=jour.1365735">Dimensions</a>, <a href="">DOAJ</a>, <a href="">SHERPA RoMEO</a>, <a href=";from_ui=yes">Crossref,</a> <a href="">ResearchBib</a>, <a href=";user=R7G787AAAAAJ">Google Scholar,</a> <a href="">GARUDA</a>, and <a href="">more</a><br /><strong>DOI: </strong><a href="">10.33084/bjop</a><br /><strong>Archive preservation: </strong><a href="[]=repoId:IOS6026">Indonesia OneSearch</a>,<strong> </strong><a href="">GARUDA</a>, and <a href=";offset=0">Internet Archive Scholar</a><br /><strong>Publisher: </strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Institute for Research and Community Services</a> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Universitas Muhammadiyah Palangkaraya</a> in collaboration with the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Central Board of the Indonesian Pharmacists Association <em>(Pengurus Pusat Ikatan Apoteker Indonesia)</em></a> <br /><strong>Editor in Chief: </strong><a href="">Mohammad Rizki Fadhil Pratama</a></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Borneo Journal of Pharmacy</strong> (<em>Borneo J Pharm</em>, ISSN: <em><a href="">2621-4814</a></em> (online)) is an international scientific platinum open-access journal managed by the <strong><a title="Department of Pharmacy Faculty of Health Science" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Department of Pharmacy Faculty of Health Science</a> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Universitas Muhammadiyah Palangkaraya</a></strong> in collaboration with the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Central Board of the Indonesian Pharmacists Association <em>(Pengurus Pusat Ikatan Apoteker Indonesia)</em></strong></a> and published four times a year (in February, May, August, and November) onward February 2020 by <strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Institute for Research and Community Services</a> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Universitas Muhammadiyah Palangkaraya</a></strong>. <strong>Borneo Journal of Pharmacy</strong> accepts scientific articles as <strong>original research articles</strong>, <strong>short communication</strong>, <strong>reviews,</strong> and <strong>mini-reviews</strong> from anyone without any discrimination, as long as they submit articles that meet scientific principles.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">As a distinctive feature, the <strong>Borneo Journal of Pharmacy</strong> prioritizes research articles conducted on the <strong>island of Borneo</strong> (consisting of <strong>Indonesia</strong>, <strong>Malaysia</strong>, and <strong>Brunei Darussalam</strong>) and those conducted by researchers from institutions on the island of Borneo. In every volume, there are always articles written by authors from the island of Borneo. However, articles from researchers outside the island of Borneo are also welcome.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Borneo Journal of Pharmacy </strong>publishes various scientific articles covering <strong>Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences</strong> in the fields but not limited to <strong>Pharmacology-Toxicology, Pharmacognosy-Phytochemistry, Pharmaceutical, Analytical Pharmacy-Medicinal Chemistry, Microbiology Pharmacy, Natural Product Development, Clinical-Community Pharmacy, and Management Pharmacy.</strong></p> Cover, Content, and Editorial Note from Borneo J Pharm Vol. 7 No. 1 February 2024 2024-04-25T04:31:40+00:00 Chief Editor of Borneo J Pharm <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>Assalamu’alaikum Wr. Wb.</em></p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Alhamdulillahirabbil ‘alamin. The next edition of the <strong>Borneo Journal of Pharmacy</strong> (Borneo J Pharm) was published in February 2024.&nbsp;This edition contains ten articles: Pharmacognosy-Phytochemistry, Analytical Pharmacy-Medicinal Chemistry, and Clinical-Community Pharmacy. This edition includes writings from four countries: India, Indonesia, South Africa, and Thailand. The authors come from several institutions, including Universitas Muhammadiyah Kalimantan Timur, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Khon Kaen University, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, University of the Witwatersrand, Universitas Sanata Dharma, Universitas Halu Oleo, Universitas Bhakti Kencana, Universitas Negeri Gorontalo, Sekolah Tinggi Farmasi Mahaganesha, Universitas Tanjungpura, National Research and Innovation Agency of the Republic of Indonesia, Universitas Surabaya, Universitas Airlangga, Universitas Indonesia, M. S. Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences, and Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Editorial boards are fully aware that this edition has room for improvement. Hence, with all humility, we are willing to accept constructive suggestions and feedback for improvements to the publication for the next editions. The editorial board would like to thank all editors, reviewers, and contributors of the scientific articles who have provided the repertoire in this issue. We hope all parties, especially the contributors, can re-participate in the publication in the next edition in May 2024.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>Wassalamu’alaikum Wr. Wb.</em></p> 2024-02-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Chief Editor of Borneo J Pharm Total Flavonoid Levels in n-hexane and Ethyl Acetate Fractions of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Leaves and Their Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities 2023-12-14T07:28:52+00:00 Ni Ketut Esati Elisabeth Oriana Jawa La Ni Putu Sudiasih Ni Nyoman Dina Saniasih <p style="text-align: justify;"><span data-preserver-spaces="true">The rosemary (</span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">Rosmarinus officinalis</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> L.) is a plant of the Lamiaceae tribe that has not been widely studied regarding its pharmacological activity, known from previous studies to contain secondary metabolites of flavonoids. Flavonoids are phenol compounds with many pharmacological activities, including antibacterials and antioxidants. This study aims to determine the total flavonoid levels in </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">R. officinalis </span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">leaves and their effect on antibacterial and antioxidant activities. This research began with the preparation of ethanol extract from </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">R. officinalis</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> leaves, then the fractionation of the extract produced </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">n</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions. Total flavonoid levels were determined against both fractions by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. A test of the fraction’s antibacterial activity against </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">Staphylococcus aureus</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> was performed using the disc diffusion method. The antioxidant test is carried out by the DPPH method. The total flavonoid content of the ethyl acetate fraction is 47.437 ± 1.947%, higher than the </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">n</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">-hexane fraction. Test antibacterial and antioxidant activity showed more significant results in the ethyl acetate fraction than in the </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">n</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">-hexane fraction. In conclusion, the total flavonoid levels of ethyl acetate fraction are directly proportional to the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">R. officinalis</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> leaves.</span></p> 2024-02-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Ni Ketut Esati, Elisabeth Oriana Jawa La, Ni Putu Sudiasih, Ni Nyoman Dina Saniasih Potential of Indonesian Plants as Polymicrobial Anti-Biofilm 2023-10-11T23:02:58+00:00 Rafika Sari Sylvia Utami Tunjung Pratiwi Yosi Bayu Murti Ema Damayanti <p>Biofilm infection occurs in 80% of chronic infections caused by 60% of biofilms from plankton cells and polymicrobial biofilms. Due to synergistic interactions between species, infections caused by polymicrobial biofilms are more virulent than monospecies biofilm infections. New anti-biofilm candidates are constantly being developed by tracing the content of active compounds from medicinal plants native to Indonesia. The need to find new plant sources that have the potential as anti-biofilms is increasingly needed along with increasing microbial resistance. Various studies show that active compounds that have anti-biofilm potential are polyphenols, quercetin, curcumin, gallic acid, and ferulic acid. The mechanism of action of anti-biofilms is through the prevention of attachment and formation of biofilms, inhibition of quorum sensing, and inhibition of gene expression in microbes.</p> 2024-02-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Rafika Sari, Sylvia Utami Tunjung Pratiwi, Yosi Bayu Murti, Ema Damayanti An Initial Investigation of the Potential of Robusta Coffee, Arabica Coffee, and Caffeine in Asthma Treatment through the Evaluation of 5-Lipoxygenase Inhibition Activity 2023-01-04T03:40:48+00:00 Tegar Achsendo Yuniarta Rosita Handayani <p>Numerous studies have documented the potential of coffee to aid in asthma prevention. Nevertheless, research into how coffee influences asthma management has not been available. One known mechanism by which asthma medications work involves inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) activity. This study aims to determine the potency of <em>Coffea canephora</em> var. Robusta extract (CRE), <em>Coffea arabica</em> extract (CAE), and caffeine are the primary isolates against 5-LOX activity. Extraction was performed by a reflux procedure using 96% ethanol with a sample-total solvent ratio of 1 : 10, an extraction time of 1 hour, and the extraction was conducted in triplicate. Fractionation was carried out by liquid-liquid partition using a chloroform-water system. Caffeine further purification was performed by the sublimation method, and the inhibition of 5-LOX activity was evaluated using the spectrophotometric method at λ = 234 nm. Apigenin was used as a positive control. From the experiment conducted, the IC50 of the CRE, CAE, caffeine, and apigenin against 5-LOX was 32.2 ± 1.4, 42.1 ± 2.3, 14.3 ± 1.6, and 7.4 ± 1.7 µg/mL, respectively. Continued efforts to isolate bioactive compounds from coffee extract led to the discovery of caffeine, which exhibited a more potent inhibitory effect on 5-LOX. The inhibition of 5-LOX activity by caffeine occurs in a non-competitive manner.</p> 2024-02-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Tegar Achsendo Yuniarta, Rosita Handayani Ziziphus rugosa Leaf: Pharmacognostical Characters and Anti-Inflammatory Properties against Carrageenan-Induced Paw Edema 2024-01-25T03:44:08+00:00 Enugurthi Hari Krishna Kamatchi Sundara Saravanan Judy Jays <p><em>Ziziphus rugosa</em> belongs to the family Rhamnaceae, which includes many flowering species, primarily trees and shrubs, and sometimes vines. This study aims to describe the pharmacognostic characteristics and potential anti-inflammatory properties of <em>Z. rugosa</em> leaf. The pharmacognostical and preliminary phytochemical studies were performed following standard procedures. Acetone, ethanol, and aqueous extracts were screened for anti-inflammatory potential using the carrageenan-induced paw edema model. <em>Ziziphus rugosa</em> was identified by its evergreen nature, recurved hooks, and drupe-type fruits. Leaves are elliptic/rounded with cordate base exhibiting a dark green glossy upper surface and pubescent lower surface. The leaf exhibited a dorsiventral nature in the transverse section, covering trichomes, collenchyma, sclerenchyma patch, and calcium oxalate crystals as key histological characters. Anamocytic stomata, covering trichomes, crystals, and fragments of vessels, are the imperative elements in powder. The extracts contain carbohydrates, alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, saponins, phenolic compounds, proteins, and flavonoids. The acetone extract at 400 and 200 mg/kg displays a maximum inflammation inhibition of 56.96% and 48.77% among the extracts, and the standard diclofenac sodium inhibits inflammation by 65.61% at 24 hours. The altered liver superoxide dismutase, glutathione, and malondialdehyde levels in the positive control group are significantly near normal in the treatment groups. The histopathological studies of treated animals show significant protection against paw and liver tissue damage. Pharmacognostical study outcomes aid in the identification of species along with ascertaining standardization parameters. Further fractionation of acetone extract followed by isolating compounds responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity would provide an alternative to managing inflammation.</p> 2024-02-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Enugurthi Hari Krishna, Kamatchi Sundara Saravanan, Judy Jays Appropriateness and Cost of Prophylaxis Stress Ulcer for Inpatient in the Internal Medicine Department in a Government Hospital: A Cross-Sectional Study 2022-10-09T13:10:09+00:00 Mega Octavia Nurul Maziyyah Rima Nurul Fauziyah <p style="text-align: justify;">Guidelines from the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) 1999 prohibit acid-suppressing therapy for stress ulcer prophylaxis (SUP) in patients who are not critically ill. Stress ulcer prophylaxis is not recommended in non-ICU patients with &lt;2 risk factors. Inappropriate use of SUP can increase costs for patients. This study aims to evaluate the use and the cost of SUP. This research was a non-experimental observational study with a cross-sectional approach. Data was collected retrospectively using the consecutive sampling method with a random sampling technique on the medical records of inpatients in the internal medicine ward of Sleman Regional Public Hospital from January to December 2020, totaling 340 samples. The results showed that proton pump inhibitors were the most widely used acid-suppressing drugs, with 45.8%. Furthermore, the histamine-2 receptor antagonist was 42.6%, the sucralfate group was 7.4%, and the antacid group was 4.2%. Of 340 patients, 57 (16.8%) were in the proper indication based on the guidelines, and 283 (83.2%) were under the wrong indication for SUP. They were using SUP with the proper indication so that the therapy could save treatment costs by Rp. 19,933,582. There was a high prevalence of inappropriate SUP prescriptions among inpatients in the internal medicine department; if these drugs were given with the appropriate indications, they could save more on the prophylaxis cost. Clinician pharmacists should develop an effective intervention strategy to reduce inappropriate SUP drugs.</p> 2024-02-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Mega Octavia, Nurul Maziyyah, Rima Nurul Fauziyah Development and Validation of a Questionnaire for the Assessment of the Factors that Influence ADR Reporting by Pharmacists 2023-12-15T04:00:52+00:00 Favian Rafif Firdaus Yunita Nita Catur Dian Setiawan Elida Zairina <p>Drug safety is a significant concern in many countries, as side effects (AE) and adverse drug reactions (ADR) have caused many deaths worldwide. One of the reasons is the low contribution of pharmacists in spontaneously reporting AE/ADR. This study aims to develop a questionnaire to assess factors that correlate with spontaneous reporting by pharmacists. A questionnaire pilot was tested on 30 pharmacist respondents who worked in type C hospitals in Surabaya and Sidoarjo, Indonesia. Respondents' responses were then evaluated for face validity, construct validity, and reliability. The results showed that the face validity of the questionnaire was ideal. Then, the results of the construct validity of the knowledge section using point biserial correlation showed that two items were invalid because the r-value was smaller than the r-table (r = 0.361). Then, construct validity uses the factor analysis method for psychological, environmental, and practical variables by paying attention to the Kaiser-Mayer-Olkin Measure (KMO) value, which must be greater than 0.5, the significance of the Bartlett test, which must be less than 0.05 and the factor loading value which conditions must be greater than 0.5. As a result, most of the psychological, environmental, and practical variables show valid and reliable results. However, further consideration should be given to eliminating some items that do not meet the requirements. In conclusion, this validated questionnaire can be used to obtain additional information regarding factors influencing spontaneous reporting by pharmacists.</p> 2024-02-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Favian Rafif Firdaus, Yunita Nita, Catur Dian Setiawan, Elida Zairina Genetic CYP2A6 Polymorphism May Worsen Glycohemoglobin Levels: Study among Javanese Indonesian Smokers 2024-01-24T02:55:44+00:00 Christine Patramurti Dita Maria Virginia <p>We have examined the inactive <em>CYP2A6</em> alleles gene, including CYP2A6*4, CYP2A6*7, and CYP2A6*9, associated with glycohemoglobin levels among Javanese Indonesian smokers. There are 106 smokers participating in this study. Due to the number of cigarettes smoked per day, there are three groups of smokers: light, intermediate, and heavy smokers, with 98.7% being light and intermediated smokers while the rest are heavy smokers. All participants had smoked for more than 10 years, indicating they had been exposed to nicotine for a long time. Based on their genotype, there were four groups of smokers, including fast, intermediate, slow, and poor metabolizers. Most fast and intermediate metabolizers have HbA1c levels in the normal range (&lt;5.7). On the other hand, most slow metabolizers have Hb1c levels &gt;5.7, and all fast metabolizers have HbA1c levels &gt;5.7, indicating that they the prediabetes and diabetes. The chi-square test showed a relationship between CYP2A6 polymorphism and HbA1c levels among the participants (P-value 0.000 &lt;0.005 and χ2=54.6, df=1). The presence of an inactive allele will worsen the HbA1c levels in smokers.</p> 2024-02-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Christine Patramurti, Dita Maria Virginia Marine Sponge Xestospongia sp.: A Promising Source for Tuberculosis Drug Development - Computational Insights into Mycobactin Biosynthesis Inhibition 2024-01-24T03:33:17+00:00 Arfan Arfan Aiyi Asnawi La Ode Aman <p><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">Mycobacterium tuberculosis</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> (MTB) remains the leading cause of infection, with a significant fatality rate, owing primarily to drug resistance. MTB contains the enzyme salicylate synthase, which regulates mycobactin production to bind iron ions from the host cell, facilitating the bacteria to grow and reproduce. This study investigates the potential of marine sponges to inhibit the MTB salicylate synthase by exploiting a computational approach combining molecular docking and dynamics simulations. Forty-six compounds from </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">Xestospongia</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> sp. were chosen from the Marine Natural Products database. The docking results selected four compounds (CMNPD15071, CMNPD7640, CMNPD26706, and CMNPD7639) from this sponge, which provide more negative binding energy than their inhibitors (RVE). After reclassifying their interactions, such as hydrophobic and hydrogen bonds, CMNPD15071 (</span>Sulfuric acid mono-(8-methoxy-12b-methyl-6-oxo-2,3,6,12b-tetrahydro-1H-5-oxa-benzo[k]acephenanthrylen-11-yl) ester<span data-preserver-spaces="true">) and CMNPD7640 (</span>secoadociaquinone B<span data-preserver-spaces="true">) performed molecular dynamics simulations to assess their stability. These two compounds show a promising stability profile compared to RVE based on RMSD, RMSF, SASA, and gyration analysis. Furthermore, the binding affinity prediction of these two compounds using the MM/GBSA calculation method reveals that CMNPD15071 (-38.48 kJ/mol) had the highest affinity for binding to MTB salicylate synthase compared to RVE (-35.36 kJ/mol) and CMNPD7640 (-26.03 kJ/mol). These findings demonstrate that compounds from </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">Xestospongia</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> sp. can block MTB mycobactin biosynthesis by inhibiting salicylate synthase.</span></p> 2024-02-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Arfan Arfan, Aiyi Asnawi, La Ode Aman Nanoemulsion Mouthwash Formulation of Bajakah Tampala (Spatholobus littoralis Hassk.) Skin Extract Against Candida albicans 2024-01-29T07:36:54+00:00 Hasyrul Hamzah Dede Reza Gunawan Sylvia Utami Tunjung Pratiwi Muh. Irham Bakhtiar Virgiawan Yoga Pratama Muhammad Subhan Riza Maulana <p><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">Candida albicans</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> can cause two infections in humans: superficial and systemic. The ability of </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">C. albicans</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> to infect the host is influenced by virulence factors and character changes so that it can fool the immune system. From the character change factor, </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">C. albicans</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> can form a biofilm. This study aims to determine the good concentration in inhibiting and determine the antifungal and antibiofilm activity of nanoemulsion mouthwash formulation of bajakah tampala (</span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">Spatholobus littoralis</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> Hassk) skin extract against </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">C. albicans</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">. This research was conducted with an experimental method. The formulation used a spontaneous magnetic stirrer technique to make nanoemulsion preparations. Antifungal and antibiofilm tests were carried out by dilution method using a 96-well plate and a microplate reader with a wavelength of 620 nm to determine the percentage inhibition against </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">C. albicans</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> and determine MIC<sub>50</sub> and MBIC<sub>50</sub>. The results showed that the nanoemulsion mouthwash formulation of </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">S. littoralis</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> inhibited the planktonic and biofilm of </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">C. albicans</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">. The concentration of 1% is expressed as MIC<sub>50</sub> and MBIC<sub>50</sub>. Therefore, the nanoemulsion formulation of </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">S. littoralis</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> extract could inhibit the growth of </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">C. albicans</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> in the oral cavity.</span></p> 2024-02-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Hasyrul Hamzah, Dede Reza Gunawan, Sylvia Utami Tunjung Pratiwi, Muh. Irham Bakhtiar, Virgiawan Yoga Pratama, Muhammad Subhan, Riza Maulana Comparative Phytochemical Profiling and Biological Activities in the Flowers and Stalks of Tulbaghia violacea 2024-02-24T09:56:07+00:00 Gontse Maleka Rebecca Opeyemi Oyerinde Ida Masana Risenga <p><em>Tulbaghia violacea</em> is indigenous to Southern Africa and has been used extensively in traditional medicine in this region. Extensive research has been documented on the bioactive compounds found in the leaves and roots but not in the flowers and stalks. Thus, this study assessed the phytochemical profile and biological activities in the flowers and stalks of <em>T. violacea</em>. Methanolic and aqueous extracts of the air and freeze-dried <em>T. violacea</em> were screened for phytochemicals, and then antioxidant and antibacterial assays were performed. Phytochemicals such as phenols, tannins, flavonoids, coumarins, and terpenoids are present in either of the tested plant parts. The flowers contain most of the phytochemicals being tested and a higher total phenolic, tannin, and proanthocyanidin content than the stalks. The flowers exhibit the strongest scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenylpicryhydrazyl radicals and metal oxidants. The hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities show that the aqueous flower extracts have a higher radical scavenging activity than stalks. In contrast, the methanolic stalk extracts have a higher antioxidant activity than the flowers. Antibacterial activity is only exhibited in the flowers, showing resistant and intermediate inhibition zones of <em>Escherichia coli</em> and <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> growth, respectively. This study validates the use of <em>T. violacea</em> in traditional medicine, and these results are significant for conserving the species as specific plant parts can be harvested to treat specific ailments. This study suggests the potential application of <em>T. violacea</em>, particularly the flowers and stalks, in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic sectors.</p> 2024-02-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Gontse Maleka, Rebecca Opeyemi Oyerinde, Ida Masana Risenga