Borneo Journal of Pharmacy https://journal.umpr.ac.id/index.php/bjop <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Title: </strong>Borneo Journal of Pharmacy<br /><strong>ISSN: </strong><a href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/2621-4814">2621-4814</a> (Online)<br /><strong>Accreditation: </strong><a href="https://sinta.kemdikbud.go.id/journals/profile/5983">SINTA 2</a> until 2025 by the Minister of Research and Technology/National Research and Innovation Agency, Indonesia No: <strong><a href="http://arjuna.kemdikbud.go.id/files/info/Hasil_Penetapan_Akreditasi_Jurnal_Periode_2_Tahun_2020.pdf">148/M/KPT/2020</a></strong>.<br /><strong>Subject: </strong>Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences<br /><strong>Frequency: </strong>Quarterly (4 issues per year in February, May, August, and November) onward <strong>February 2020</strong><br /><strong>Indexed at: </strong><a href="https://assets.ctfassets.net/o78em1y1w4i4/7DqHvOd6Wk1HPaSRTcncly/415dfc9b845d28708d750dc83b609ebf/2023-07-embase-journals.xlsx">EMBASE</a>, <a href="https://sinta.kemdikbud.go.id/journals/profile/5983">SINTA 2</a>,<strong> </strong><a href="https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?search_mode=content&amp;and_facet_source_title=jour.1365735">Dimensions</a>, <a href="https://doaj.org/toc/2621-4814">DOAJ</a>, <a href="https://v2.sherpa.ac.uk/id/publication/37313">SHERPA RoMEO</a>, <a href="https://search.crossref.org/?q=2621-4814">Crossref,</a> <a href="https://journals.indexcopernicus.com/search/details?id=50019">Index Copernicus International</a>, <a href="http://journalseeker.researchbib.com/view/issn/2621-4814">ResearchBib</a>, <a href="https://scholar.google.com/citations?hl=en&amp;user=R7G787AAAAAJ">Google Scholar,</a> <a href="https://garuda.kemdikbud.go.id/journal/view/12940">GARUDA</a>, and <a href="http://journal.umpr.ac.id/index.php/bjop/indexing">more</a><br /><strong>DOI: </strong><a href="https://doi.org/10.33084/bjop">10.33084/bjop</a><br /><strong>Archive preservation: </strong><a href="http://onesearch.id/Search/Results?filter[]=repoId:IOS6026">Indonesia OneSearch,</a><strong> </strong><a href="https://garuda.kemdikbud.go.id/journal/view/12940">GARUDA</a><br /><strong>Publisher: </strong><a href="https://lp2m.umpr.ac.id/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Institute for Research and Community Services</a> <a href="http://umpr.ac.id" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Universitas Muhammadiyah Palangkaraya</a> in collaboration with the <a href="https://drive.google.com/file/d/1LwF3LBukGCzkwwNuZOu96737Os8JnEh8/view?usp=share_link" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Central Board of the Indonesian Pharmacists Association <em>(Pengurus Pusat Ikatan Apoteker Indonesia)</em></a> <br /><strong>Editor in Chief: </strong><a href="https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0727-4392">Mohammad Rizki Fadhil Pratama</a></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Borneo Journal of Pharmacy</strong> (<em>Borneo J Pharm</em>, ISSN: <em><a href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/2621-4814">2621-4814</a></em> (online)) is an international scientific platinum open-access journal managed by the <strong><a title="Department of Pharmacy Faculty of Health Science" href="https://fik.umpr.ac.id/program-studi/d3-farmasi/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Department of Pharmacy Faculty of Health Science</a> <a href="http://umpr.ac.id" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Universitas Muhammadiyah Palangkaraya</a></strong> in collaboration with the <a href="https://drive.google.com/file/d/1LwF3LBukGCzkwwNuZOu96737Os8JnEh8/view?usp=share_link" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Central Board of the Indonesian Pharmacists Association <em>(Pengurus Pusat Ikatan Apoteker Indonesia)</em></strong></a> and published four times a year (in February, May, August, and November) onward February 2020 by <strong><a href="https://lp2m.umpr.ac.id/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Institute for Research and Community Services</a> <a href="http://umpr.ac.id" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Universitas Muhammadiyah Palangkaraya</a></strong>. <strong>Borneo Journal of Pharmacy</strong> accepts scientific articles as <strong>original research articles</strong>, <strong>short communication</strong>, <strong>reviews,</strong> and <strong>mini-reviews</strong> from anyone without any discrimination, as long as they submit articles that meet scientific principles.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">As a distinctive feature, the <strong>Borneo Journal of Pharmacy</strong> prioritizes research articles conducted on the <strong>island of Borneo</strong> (consisting of <strong>Indonesia</strong>, <strong>Malaysia</strong>, and <strong>Brunei Darussalam</strong>), as well as those conducted by researchers from institutions on the island of Borneo. In every volume, there are always articles written by authors from the island of Borneo. However, articles from researchers outside the island of Borneo are also welcome.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Borneo Journal of Pharmacy</strong> publishes various scientific articles covering <strong>Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences</strong>, in the field but not limited to <strong>Pharmacology-Toxicology</strong>; <strong>Pharmacognosy-Phytochemistry</strong>; <strong>Pharmaceutical</strong>; <strong>Analytical Pharmacy-Medicinal Chemistry</strong>; <strong>Microbiology Pharmacy</strong>; <strong>Natural Product Development</strong>; <strong>Clinical-Community Pharmacy</strong>; and <strong>Management Pharmacy</strong>.</p> en-US <p style="text-align: justify;">Authors continue to retain the copyright to the article if the article is published in the <strong>Borneo Journal of Pharmacy</strong>. They will also retain the publishing rights to the article without any restrictions.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">Any article on the copyright is retained by the author(s).</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">The author grants the journal, right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share work with an acknowledgment of the work authors and initial publications in this journal.</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of published articles of work (eg, post-institutional repository) or publish it in a book, with acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their websites) prior to and during the submission process, as can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">The article and any associated published material are distributed under the <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/">Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License</a>.</li> </ol> mohammadrizkifadhilpratama@gmail.com (Mohammad Rizki Fadhil Pratama) bjop@umpr.ac.id (Syahrida Dian Ardhany) Thu, 29 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.2.1.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Total Flavonoid Levels in n-hexane and Ethyl Acetate Fractions of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Leaves and Their Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities https://journal.umpr.ac.id/index.php/bjop/article/view/4034 <p style="text-align: justify;"><span data-preserver-spaces="true">The rosemary (</span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">Rosmarinus officinalis</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> L.) is a plant of the Lamiaceae tribe that has not been widely studied regarding its pharmacological activity, known from previous studies to contain secondary metabolites of flavonoids. Flavonoids are phenol compounds with many pharmacological activities, including antibacterials and antioxidants. This study aims to determine the total flavonoid levels in </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">R. officinalis </span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">leaves and their effect on antibacterial and antioxidant activities. This research began with the preparation of ethanol extract from </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">R. officinalis</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> leaves, then the fractionation of the extract produced </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">n</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions. Total flavonoid levels were determined against both fractions by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. A test of the fraction’s antibacterial activity against </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">Staphylococcus aureus</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> was performed using the disc diffusion method. The antioxidant test is carried out by the DPPH method. The total flavonoid content of the ethyl acetate fraction is 47.437 ± 1.947%, higher than the </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">n</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">-hexane fraction. Test antibacterial and antioxidant activity showed more significant results in the ethyl acetate fraction than in the </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">n</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">-hexane fraction. In conclusion, the total flavonoid levels of ethyl acetate fraction are directly proportional to the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">R. officinalis</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> leaves.</span></p> Ni Ketut Esati, Elisabeth Oriana Jawa La, Ni Putu Sudiasih, Ni Nyoman Dina Saniasih Copyright (c) 2024 Ni Ketut Esati, Elisabeth Oriana Jawa La, Ni Putu Sudiasih, Ni Nyoman Dina Saniasih https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 https://journal.umpr.ac.id/index.php/bjop/article/view/4034 Thu, 29 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Potential of Indonesian Plants as Polymicrobial Anti-Biofilm https://journal.umpr.ac.id/index.php/bjop/article/view/5645 <p>Biofilm infection occurs in 80% of chronic infections caused by 60% of biofilms from plankton cells and polymicrobial biofilms. Due to synergistic interactions between species, infections caused by polymicrobial biofilms are more virulent than monospecies biofilm infections. New anti-biofilm candidates are constantly being developed by tracing the content of active compounds from medicinal plants native to Indonesia. The need to find new plant sources that have the potential as anti-biofilms is increasingly needed along with increasing microbial resistance. Various studies show that active compounds that have anti-biofilm potential are polyphenols, quercetin, curcumin, gallic acid, and ferulic acid. The mechanism of action of anti-biofilms is through the prevention of attachment and formation of biofilms, inhibition of quorum sensing, and inhibition of gene expression in microbes.</p> Rafika Sari, Sylvia Utami Tunjung Pratiwi, Yosi Bayu Murti, Ema Damayanti Copyright (c) 2024 Rafika Sari, Sylvia Utami Tunjung Pratiwi, Yosi Bayu Murti, Ema Damayanti https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 https://journal.umpr.ac.id/index.php/bjop/article/view/5645 Thu, 29 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 An Initial Investigation of the Potential of Robusta Coffee, Arabica Coffee, and Caffeine in Asthma Treatment through the Evaluation of 5-Lipoxygenase Inhibition Activity https://journal.umpr.ac.id/index.php/bjop/article/view/4448 <p>Numerous studies have documented the potential of coffee to aid in asthma prevention. Nevertheless, research into how coffee influences asthma management has not been available. One known mechanism by which asthma medications work involves inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) activity. This study aims to determine the potency of <em>Coffea canephora</em> var. Robusta extract (CRE), <em>Coffea arabica</em> extract (CAE), and caffeine are the primary isolates against 5-LOX activity. Extraction was performed by a reflux procedure using 96% ethanol with a sample-total solvent ratio of 1 : 10, an extraction time of 1 hour, and the extraction was conducted in triplicate. Fractionation was carried out by liquid-liquid partition using a chloroform-water system. Caffeine further purification was performed by the sublimation method, and the inhibition of 5-LOX activity was evaluated using the spectrophotometric method at λ = 234 nm. Apigenin was used as a positive control. From the experiment conducted, the IC50 of the CRE, CAE, caffeine, and apigenin against 5-LOX was 32.2 ± 1.4, 42.1 ± 2.3, 14.3 ± 1.6, and 7.4 ± 1.7 µg/mL, respectively. Continued efforts to isolate bioactive compounds from coffee extract led to the discovery of caffeine, which exhibited a more potent inhibitory effect on 5-LOX. The inhibition of 5-LOX activity by caffeine occurs in a non-competitive manner.</p> Tegar Achsendo Yuniarta, Rosita Handayani Copyright (c) 2024 Tegar Achsendo Yuniarta, Rosita Handayani https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 https://journal.umpr.ac.id/index.php/bjop/article/view/4448 Thu, 29 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Appropriateness and Cost of Prophylaxis Stress Ulcer for Inpatient in the Internal Medicine Department in a Government Hospital: A Cross-Sectional Study https://journal.umpr.ac.id/index.php/bjop/article/view/4080 <p style="text-align: justify;">Guidelines from the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) 1999 prohibit acid-suppressing therapy for stress ulcer prophylaxis (SUP) in patients who are not critically ill. Stress ulcer prophylaxis is not recommended in non-ICU patients with &lt;2 risk factors. Inappropriate use of SUP can increase costs for patients. This study aims to evaluate the use and the cost of SUP. This research was a non-experimental observational study with a cross-sectional approach. Data was collected retrospectively using the consecutive sampling method with a random sampling technique on the medical records of inpatients in the internal medicine ward of Sleman Regional Public Hospital from January to December 2020, totaling 340 samples. The results showed that proton pump inhibitors were the most widely used acid-suppressing drugs, with 45.8%. Furthermore, the histamine-2 receptor antagonist was 42.6%, the sucralfate group was 7.4%, and the antacid group was 4.2%. Of 340 patients, 57 (16.8%) were in the proper indication based on the guidelines, and 283 (83.2%) were under the wrong indication for SUP. They were using SUP with the proper indication so that the therapy could save treatment costs by Rp. 19,933,582. There was a high prevalence of inappropriate SUP prescriptions among inpatients in the internal medicine department; if these drugs were given with the appropriate indications, they could save more on the prophylaxis cost. Clinician pharmacists should develop an effective intervention strategy to reduce inappropriate SUP drugs.</p> Mega Octavia, Nurul Maziyyah, Rima Nurul Fauziyah Copyright (c) 2024 Mega Octavia, Nurul Maziyyah, Rima Nurul Fauziyah https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 https://journal.umpr.ac.id/index.php/bjop/article/view/4080 Thu, 29 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Development and Validation of a Questionnaire for the Assessment of the Factors that Influence ADR Reporting by Pharmacists https://journal.umpr.ac.id/index.php/bjop/article/view/6334 <p>Drug safety is a significant concern in many countries, as side effects (AE) and adverse drug reactions (ADR) have caused many deaths worldwide. One of the reasons is the low contribution of pharmacists in spontaneously reporting AE/ADR. This study aims to develop a questionnaire to assess factors that correlate with spontaneous reporting by pharmacists. A questionnaire pilot was tested on 30 pharmacist respondents who worked in type C hospitals in Surabaya and Sidoarjo, Indonesia. Respondents' responses were then evaluated for face validity, construct validity, and reliability. The results showed that the face validity of the questionnaire was ideal. Then, the results of the construct validity of the knowledge section using point biserial correlation showed that two items were invalid because the r-value was smaller than the r-table (r = 0.361). Then, construct validity uses the factor analysis method for psychological, environmental, and practical variables by paying attention to the Kaiser-Mayer-Olkin Measure (KMO) value, which must be greater than 0.5, the significance of the Bartlett test, which must be less than 0.05 and the factor loading value which conditions must be greater than 0.5. As a result, most of the psychological, environmental, and practical variables show valid and reliable results. However, further consideration should be given to eliminating some items that do not meet the requirements. In conclusion, this validated questionnaire can be used to obtain additional information regarding factors influencing spontaneous reporting by pharmacists.</p> Favian Rafif Firdaus, Yunita Nita, Catur Dian Setiawan, Elida Zairina Copyright (c) 2024 Favian Rafif Firdaus, Yunita Nita, Catur Dian Setiawan, Elida Zairina https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 https://journal.umpr.ac.id/index.php/bjop/article/view/6334 Thu, 29 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Genetic CYP2A6 Polymorphism May Worsen Glycohemoglobin Levels: Study among Javanese Indonesian Smokers https://journal.umpr.ac.id/index.php/bjop/article/view/5467 <p>We have examined the inactive <em>CYP2A6</em> alleles gene, including CYP2A6*4, CYP2A6*7, and CYP2A6*9, associated with glycohemoglobin levels among Javanese Indonesian smokers. There are 106 smokers participating in this study. Due to the number of cigarettes smoked per day, there are three groups of smokers: light, intermediate, and heavy smokers, with 98.7% being light and intermediated smokers while the rest are heavy smokers. All participants had smoked for more than 10 years, indicating they had been exposed to nicotine for a long time. Based on their genotype, there were four groups of smokers, including fast, intermediate, slow, and poor metabolizers. Most fast and intermediate metabolizers have HbA1c levels in the normal range (&lt;5.7). On the other hand, most slow metabolizers have Hb1c levels &gt;5.7, and all fast metabolizers have HbA1c levels &gt;5,7, indicating that they the prediabetes and diabetes. The chi-square test showed a relationship between CYP2A6 polymorphism and HbA1c levels among the participants (P-value 0.000 &lt;0.005 and χ2=54.6, df=1). The presence of an inactive allele will worsen the HbA1c levels in smokers.</p> Christine Patramurti, Dita Maria Virginia Copyright (c) 2024 Christine Patramurti, Dita Maria Virginia https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 https://journal.umpr.ac.id/index.php/bjop/article/view/5467 Thu, 29 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Marine Sponge Xestospongia sp.: A Promising Source for Tuberculosis Drug Development - Computational Insights into Mycobactin Biosynthesis Inhibition https://journal.umpr.ac.id/index.php/bjop/article/view/5513 <p><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">Mycobacterium tuberculosis</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> (MTB) remains the leading cause of infection, with a significant fatality rate, owing primarily to drug resistance. MTB contains the enzyme salicylate synthase, which regulates mycobactin production to bind iron ions from the host cell, facilitating the bacteria to grow and reproduce. This study investigates the potential of marine sponges to inhibit the MTB salicylate synthase by exploiting a computational approach combining molecular docking and dynamics simulations. Forty-six compounds from </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">Xestospongia</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> sp. were chosen from the Marine Natural Products database. The docking results selected four compounds (CMNPD15071, CMNPD7640, CMNPD26706, and CMNPD7639) from this sponge, which provide more negative binding energy than their inhibitors (RVE). After reclassifying their interactions, such as hydrophobic and hydrogen bonds, CMNPD15071 (</span>Sulfuric acid mono-(8-methoxy-12b-methyl-6-oxo-2,3,6,12b-tetrahydro-1H-5-oxa-benzo[k]acephenanthrylen-11-yl) ester<span data-preserver-spaces="true">) and CMNPD7640 (</span>secoadociaquinone B<span data-preserver-spaces="true">) performed molecular dynamics simulations to assess their stability. These two compounds show a promising stability profile compared to RVE based on RMSD, RMSF, SASA, and gyration analysis. Furthermore, the binding affinity prediction of these two compounds using the MM/GBSA calculation method reveals that CMNPD15071 (-38.48 kJ/mol) had the highest affinity for binding to MTB salicylate synthase compared to RVE (-35.36 kJ/mol) and CMNPD7640 (-26.03 kJ/mol). These findings demonstrate that compounds from </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">Xestospongia</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> sp. can block MTB mycobactin biosynthesis by inhibiting salicylate synthase.</span></p> Arfan Arfan, Aiyi Asnawi, La Ode Aman Copyright (c) 2024 Arfan Arfan, Aiyi Asnawi, La Ode Aman https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 https://journal.umpr.ac.id/index.php/bjop/article/view/5513 Thu, 29 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Nanoemulsion Mouthwash Formulation of Bajakah Tampala (Spatholobus littoralis Hassk.) Skin Extract Against Candida albicans https://journal.umpr.ac.id/index.php/bjop/article/view/5548 <p><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">Candida albicans</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> can cause two infections in humans: superficial and systemic. The ability of </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">C. albicans</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> to infect the host is influenced by virulence factors and character changes so that it can fool the immune system. From the character change factor, </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">C. albicans</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> can form a biofilm. This study aims to determine the good concentration in inhibiting and determine the antifungal and antibiofilm activity of nanoemulsion mouthwash formulation of bajakah tampala (</span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">Spatholobus littoralis</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> Hassk) skin extract against </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">C. albicans</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">. This research was conducted with an experimental method. The formulation used a spontaneous magnetic stirrer technique to make nanoemulsion preparations. Antifungal and antibiofilm tests were carried out by dilution method using a 96-well plate and a microplate reader with a wavelength of 620 nm to determine the percentage inhibition against </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">C. albicans</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> and determine MIC<sub>50</sub> and MBIC<sub>50</sub>. The results showed that the nanoemulsion mouthwash formulation of </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">S. littoralis</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> inhibited the planktonic and biofilm of </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">C. albicans</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">. The concentration of 1% is expressed as MIC<sub>50</sub> and MBIC<sub>50</sub>. Therefore, the nanoemulsion formulation of </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">S. littoralis</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> extract could inhibit the growth of </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">C. albicans</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> in the oral cavity.</span></p> Hasyrul Hamzah, Dede Reza Gunawan, Sylvia Utami Tunjung Pratiwi, Muh. Irham Bakhtiar, Virgiawan Yoga Pratama, Muhammad Subhan, Riza Maulana Copyright (c) 2024 Hasyrul Hamzah, Dede Reza Gunawan, Sylvia Utami Tunjung Pratiwi, Muh. Irham Bakhtiar, Virgiawan Yoga Pratama, Muhammad Subhan, Riza Maulana https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 https://journal.umpr.ac.id/index.php/bjop/article/view/5548 Thu, 29 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative Phytochemical Profiling and Biological Activities in the Flowers and Stalks of Tulbaghia violacea https://journal.umpr.ac.id/index.php/bjop/article/view/6035 <p><em>Tulbaghia violacea</em> is indigenous to Southern Africa and has been used extensively in traditional medicine in this region. Extensive research has been documented on the bioactive compounds found in the leaves and roots but not in the flowers and stalks. Thus, this study assessed the phytochemical profile and biological activities in the flowers and stalks of <em>T. violacea</em>. Methanolic and aqueous extracts of the air and freeze-dried <em>T. violacea</em> were screened for phytochemicals, and then antioxidant and antibacterial assays were performed. Phytochemicals such as phenols, tannins, flavonoids, coumarins, and terpenoids are present in either of the tested plant parts. The flowers contain most of the phytochemicals being tested and a higher total phenolic, tannin, and proanthocyanidin content than the stalks. The flowers exhibit the strongest scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenylpicryhydrazyl radicals and metal oxidants. The hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities show that the aqueous flower extracts have a higher radical scavenging activity than stalks. In contrast, the methanolic stalk extracts have a higher antioxidant activity than the flowers. Antibacterial activity is only exhibited in the flowers, showing resistant and intermediate inhibition zones of <em>Escherichia coli</em> and <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> growth, respectively. This study validates the use of <em>T. violacea</em> in traditional medicine, and these results are significant for conserving the species as specific plant parts can be harvested to treat specific ailments. This study suggests the potential application of <em>T. violacea</em>, particularly the flowers and stalks, in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic sectors.</p> Gontse Maleka, Rebecca Opeyemi Oyerinde, Ida Masana Risenga Copyright (c) 2024 Gontse Maleka, Rebecca Opeyemi Oyerinde, Ida Masana Risenga https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 https://journal.umpr.ac.id/index.php/bjop/article/view/6035 Thu, 29 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000