Illness Risk Perceptions and Efficacy Beliefs Among Indonesian in the Course of COVID-19 Pandemic

Lolita Lolita (1) , Azis Ikhsanudin (2)
(1) Universitas Ahmad Dahlan , Indonesia
(2) Universitas Ahmad Dahlan , Indonesia


COVID-19, a worldwide pandemic, has posed a significant challenge to public health systems worldwide. Health risk perception and efficacy belief are primary constructs influencing individuals' protective behavior due to the outbreak. Our study investigated each item of illness risk perception, efficacy belief, and its related factors concerning the COVID-19 pandemic. An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted among 227 respondents aged 17 to 70. Data collection was conducted using convenience sampling by distributing the web questionnaire between April and July 2020. Mann-Whitney or Kruskal-Wallis bivariate analysis was performed using SPSS version 21.0 to assess the relationship between individual characteristic factors, illness risk perception, and efficacy belief. The study established that respondents had a medium to a high level of illness risk perception and a reasonable efficacy belief in dealing with the COVID-19 pandemic. Region (p=0.027) and occupation (p=0.036) differences were significantly associated with the threat and severity perception, respectively. Smoking history (p=0.037), supplement use (p=0.029), and occupation (p=0.018) differences were significantly associated with self-efficacy. Meanwhile, gender (p=0.045) differences were significantly associated with response efficacy. Therefore, the public's illness risk perception and efficacy belief could be substantial in planning, modifying, and implementing a coordinated response for risk communication in current and future epidemics.

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Lolita Lolita (Primary Contact)
Azis Ikhsanudin
Author Biographies

Lolita Lolita, Universitas Ahmad Dahlan

1 Department of Pharmacy, Universitas Ahmad Dahlan, Yogyakarta, Special Region of Yogyakarta, Indonesia

2 Research Division of Clinical Pharmacology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China

Azis Ikhsanudin, Universitas Ahmad Dahlan

1 Department of Pharmacy, Universitas Ahmad Dahlan, Yogyakarta, Special Region of Yogyakarta, Indonesia

2 Doctoral Program of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sleman, Special Region of Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Lolita L, Ikhsanudin A. Illness Risk Perceptions and Efficacy Beliefs Among Indonesian in the Course of COVID-19 Pandemic. Borneo J Pharm [Internet]. 2022Nov.30 [cited 2023Jan.31];5(4):396-405. Available from:

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