Iron-Overload Conditions: Manifestations to the Kidney Organs – A Review

Nadia Larasinta Heriatmo (1) , Ari Estuningtyas (2) , Vivian Soetikno (3)
(1) Pancasila University , Indonesia
(2) University of Indonesia , Indonesia
(3) University of Indonesia , Indonesia

Abstract

Excess iron is a risk factor for organ dysfunction and damage resulting in various organ diseases such as liver, heart, and kidney, diabetes mellitus, and neurodegenerative diseases. Iron overload in some individuals is caused by various factors, including genetic predisposition such as genetic hemochromatosis, repeated transfusion of red blood cells, and parenteral iron administration in conditions of transfusion-dependent anemia. A disturbance in the globin gene in diseases such as β-thalassemia major causes an imbalance of the globin chain, resulting in chronic anemia in the sufferer. It has been reported that the human body does not have a mechanism for eliminating excess iron levels. Routine transfusion has become a solution to overcome chronic anemia so that patients can maintain hemoglobin levels, and the result of this transfusion repetition is the accumulation of iron in various organs, such as the heart, liver, endocrine glands, pancreas, lungs, and kidneys. Excess iron can be toxic to the body due to the formation of harmful free radicals that can damage cells and tissues. An increase in excessive ROS can result in the saturation of the antioxidant system. The presence of free radicals can lead to damage and the occurrence of filtration dysfunction in the glomerulus.

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Authors

Nadia Larasinta Heriatmo
Ari Estuningtyas
ari_handoyo@yahoo.com (Primary Contact)
Vivian Soetikno
Author Biographies

Nadia Larasinta Heriatmo, Pancasila University

Master Program in Biomedical Sciences, Universitas Indonesia, Central Jakarta, Special Capital Region of Jakarta, Indonesia

Department of Pharmacy, Universitas Pancasila, South Jakarta, Special Capital Region of Jakarta, Indonesia

Ari Estuningtyas, University of Indonesia

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Universitas Indonesia, Central Jakarta, Special Capital Region of Jakarta, Indonesia

Vivian Soetikno, University of Indonesia

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Universitas Indonesia, Central Jakarta, Special Capital Region of Jakarta, Indonesia

1.
Heriatmo NL, Estuningtyas A, Soetikno V. Iron-Overload Conditions: Manifestations to the Kidney Organs – A Review. Borneo J Pharm [Internet]. 2023Nov.30 [cited 2024May20];6(4):360-9. Available from: https://journal.umpr.ac.id/index.php/bjop/article/view/4411

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